Buyuk Britaniya avtomobilsozlik sanoati

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Buyuk Britaniyadagi avtomobilsozlik sanoati bugungi kunda premium va sport avtoulovlari bilan mashhurdir: Aston Martin, Bentley, Caterham Cars, Daimler, Jaguar, Lagonda, Land Rover, Lister Cars, Lotus, McLaren, MG, Mini, Morgan va Rolls- Royce. Buyuk Britaniyada katta hajmga ega bo'lgan avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchilari orasida Honda, Nissan, Toyota va sssVauxhall Motors ( Opelning sho''ba korxonasi, Frantsiyaning Groupe PSA avtomobil kompaniyasining sho''ba korxonasi). [1] Buyuk Britaniyada faoliyat yuritadigan tijorat transport vositalarini ishlab chiqaruvchilar qatoriga Alexander Dennis, Ford, IBC Vehicles (PSA Groups egalik qiladi), Leyland Trucks (Paccar egalik qiladi) va London EV Company ( Geely egalik qiladi) kiradi.

2018 yilda Buyuk Britaniyaning avtomobilsozlik sektoridagi aylanma kapital £82 mlrd. funt sterling tashkil etdi, Buyuk Britaniya iqtisodiyoti uchun qiymati £18,6 mlrd. funt sterling mahhsulot ishlab chiqarilib, taxminan 1,5 mln. yengil avtomobili va 85 ming tijorat avtomobili ishlab chiqarildi. O'sha yili Buyuk Britaniyada 168 ming ga yaqin kishi to'g'ridan-to'g'ri avtomobil ishlab chiqarishda ish bilan ta'minlangan, undan tashqari 823 ming kishi avtomobil ta'minoti, chakana savdo va xizmat ko'rsatish sohasida band bo'lgan. Buyuk Britaniya dvigatel ishlab chiqarishning asosiy markazi va 2018 yilda 2.71 mln. atrofida dvigatel ishlab chiqarildi.[1] Buyuk Britaniyada avtoulov poygasi muhim ahamiyatga ega va Buyuk Britaniyaning motorsport sanoatida hozirda 38,5 ming kishi ishlaydi, 4500 kompaniyani o'z ichiga oladi va yillik aylanmasi 6 mlrd. funt atrofida.[2]

Buyuk Britaniyaning avtomobilsozlik sanoatining kelib chiqishi 19-asrning so'nggi yillariga borib taqaladi. 1950-yillarga kelib Buyuk Britaniya avtomobil ishlab chiqarishda dunyoda ikkinchi o'rinda (AQShdan keyin) va eng yirik eksportyorga aylandi. [3] Biroq, keyingi o'n yilliklarda sanoat Frantsiya, Germaniya va Yaponiya singari raqobatdosh davlatlarga qaraganda ancha past o'sishga erishdi va 2008 yilga kelib Buyuk Britaniya avtomobillar ishlab chiqarish hajmi bo'yicha 12-o'rinni egalladi. 90-yillarning boshlaridan beri Britaniyaning ko'plab avtomobil markalari chet el kompaniayalari tomonidan sotib olingan, shu qatorda BMW (Mini va Rolls-Royce), SAIC (MG), Tata (Jaguar va Land Rover) va Volkswagen Group (Bentley). Hozirgi kunda ko'plab markalar, shu jumladan Austin, Riley, Rover va Triumph lar ham xorijiy kompaniyalarga tegishli.

Mashhur va britaniyaliklar orasida taniqli avtomobil modellari bu Aston Martin DB5, Aston Martin V8 Vantage, Bentley 4½ Litr, Jaguar E-Type, Land Rover Defender, Lotus Esprit, McLaren F1, MGB, original ikki eshikli Mini, Range Rover, Rolls-Royce Phantom III va Rover P5 . [4] [5] [6] [7] Buyuk Britaniyalik taniqli dizaynerlar orasida David Bache, Laurence Pomeroy, John Polwhele Blatchley, Ian Callum, Colin Chapman, Alec Issigonis, Charles Spencer King va Gordon Murray bor. [8]

Tarix[tahrir]

1896-1900 yillarda[tahrir]

Frederik Simms o'zining Motor Skout ida, 1899 yil iyun oyida.

Motorli avtomobillar Britaniya yo'llarida 1890 yillarning boshlarida foydalanilishi boshlangan, ammo dastlab transport vositalari butunlay import qilingan. [9] Angliya avtosanoati 1880 yillarning oxirida boshlangan desa bo'ladi, shu payt Londonda joylashgan konsultant muhandisi Frederik Simms 1885 yilda yuqori tezlikdagi benzinli dvigatel uchun muvaffaqiyatli dizaynni patentlagan Gottlieb Daimler bilan do'stlashgan edi. Simms Daimler dvigateliga va unga tegishli patentlarga Britaniya huquqlarini oldi va 1891 yildan Thames (Temza) dagi Eel Pie orolidagi ushbu Cannstatt motorlar yordamida muvaffaqiyatli sotuvga chiqdi. 1893 yilda u Daimler bilan bog'liq turli xil korxonalar uchun Daimler Motor Syndicate Limited ni tashkil qildi.

1895 yil iyun oyida Simms va uning do'sti Evelyn Ellis Angliyaga Daymler dvigatelida ishlaydigan Panhard va Levassorni olib kelib, Buyuk Britaniyada motorli avtomobillarni reklama qilishdi va politsiya aralashuvisiz, Sautgemptondan Malvernagacha bo'lgan birinchi ingliz uzoq masofali avtomobil sayohatini uyushtirishti.

Simmsning Daimler Motors va Daimler Motor Carriages (Cheltenhamda) ishlab chiqarish bo'yicha hujjatlashtirilgan rejalari, uning kompaniyasi va Daimler litsenziyalari bilan birga Londondagi HJ Lawson promouter-kompaniyasi tomonidan olindi. Lawson Daimler Motor Syndicate Limitedni va uning barcha huquqlarini sotib olishga shartnoma tuzdi va 1896 yil 14-yanvarda tashkil topdi va fevralda Londonda Daimler Motor Company Limited muvaffaqiyatli faoliyat boshladi. Keyinchalik u Lawsonning do'stidan, Coventry shtatida ishlatilmaydigan paxta tegirmonini sotib oldi, unda da'vo qilinishicha Buyuk Britaniyada birinchi seriyali avtomobil ishlab chiqarilgan.

Daimler tortishish tormozi 6   ot kuchi, ikki silindrli, 1526 kub santimetrli dvigatel, avtoulovning old tomoniga o'rnatilgan, to'rt bosqichli qutisi va zanjirli haydovchi (drive) Buyuk Britaniyaning birinchi seriyali Coventry 1897 ishlab chiqarilgan avtomobil. Louwman Muzeyi.

Birinchi butun britaniyalik motor avtomobili uchun da'vo qilingan Jorj Lanstersterning 1895 va 1896 yillardagi birinchi avtomobillari frantsuz va nemis qismlarini ham o'z ichiga olgan. 1891 yilda Janubiy Uelslik kon muhandisi Richard Stephens Michigandan shtatidan qaytgach Somersetdagi Clevedonda velosiped ishlab chiqarishni yo'lga qo'ydi. Amerikada bo'lganida, u harakatlantiruvchi kuchning rivojlanishini ko'rgan va 1897 yilga kelib o'zining birinchi avtomobilini ishlab chiqargan. Bu butunlay o'zining dizayni va ishlab chiqarishi, shu jumladan ikki silindrli dvigateldan iborat edi, Coventry dagi Starley-dan sotib olingan g'ildiraklardan tashqari. Bu, ehtimol, birinchi Britaniya-butun avtoulovi edi va Stephens o'n ikkita transport vositasini ishlab chiqaradigan liniyani o'rnatdi, shu jumladan to'rt va olti kishilik avtoulovlar va hackneylar va to'qqiz kishilik avtobuslarni. [10]

Buyuk Britaniyada avtoulovlarning erta rivojlanishi 19-asrda avtomobil yo'llarida mexanik harakatlanuvchi transport vositalaridan foydalanishni keskin cheklab qo'ygan bir qator Lokomotiv aktlari tomonidan keskin ravishda to'xtatib qo'ydi. Avtotransport ixlosmandlari, shu jumladan Daymlerlik Garri J. Lawsonning shafqatsiz targ'ibotidan so'ng, ushbu xatti-harakatlarning eng yomon cheklovlari (har bir transport vositasiga uch kishilik ekipaj hamrohlik qilish zarurati va shaharlarda 3.2 km/saot tezlik chegarasi), 1896 yil "Yo'llardagi lokomotivlar to'g'risida" gi qonun tomonidan bekor qilingan. [11] Ushbu tartibga binoan engil lokomotivlar (3 tonnagacha bo'lgan transport vositalari) avvalgi cheklovlardan ozod qilindi, yuqori tezlikni cheklash ular uchun 23 km/soat deb o'rnatildi. Yangi erkinliklarni nishonlash uchun Lawson yangi akt kuchga kirgan kuni 1896 yil 14-noyabrda o'tkazilgan " ozodlik yugurish"ini uyushtirdi. Ushbu voqea 1927 yildan beri har yili Londondan Brighton gacha Veteran avtoulovlar yurishi tashkillashtirilib nishonlanadi. [12]

1900 yildan 1939 yilgacha[tahrir]

Charles Rolls va Henry Royce o'rtasidagi kelishuv natijasida ishlab chiqarilgan birinchi mashina bo'lgan 10 ot kuchli Rolls-Royce.

19-asr oxiridagi birinchi Britaniya transport vositalari asosan Germaniya va Frantsiya dagi rivojlanishga tayanar edi. Ammo 1900 yilga kelib, birinchi butun britaniyalik 4 g'ildirakli mashina Herbert Austin - The Wolseley Sheep Shearing Machine Company menejeri tomonidan dizaynlangan va ishlab chiqarilgan. 1901 yilda ( Vickers Limited ) aka-uka "Polkovnik Tom" va Albert Vickers tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlanib, Austin Birmingemda Wolseley Motorsni, Buyuk Britaniyaning 1913 yilgacha (Fordgacha) eng yirik avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchi kompaniyasiga asos soldi. [13]

ko'plab avtoulovlarini ishlab chiqaruvchilar, ko'pisi velosiped sanoatidan kelib katta shov-shuvga tushishdi. 1913 yilgacha Britaniyaning 200 ta avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchilaridan atigi 100 ta firma hanuzgacha mavjud edi. 1910 yilda Buyuk Britaniyada avtomobil ishlab chiqarish 14 ming donani tashkil etdi. 1913 yilga kelib Henry Ford Manchesterda yangi zavod qurdi va o'sha yili 7310 ta avtomobil ishlab chiqaradigan Buyuk Britaniyaning etakchi ishlab chiqaruvchisiga aylandi, undan keyin Wolseley 3000, Humber (Coventry da 1898 yildan avtomobillar ishlab chiqargan) 2500, Rover (1904 yildan Coventry avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchisi) 1800 va Sunbeam (1901 yildan beri avtomobillar ishlab chiqargan) da 1700, kichik ishlab chiqaruvchilarning mo'l-ko'lligi 1913-ga jami 16000 ga yaqin transport vositalarini chiqargan. [14] Avtomobil ishlab chiqarish 1914-1918 yillardagi urush yillarida deyarli to'xtab qoldi, garchi urush ishlab chiqarish talablari avtoulov sanoatida yangi ommaviy ishlab chiqarish texnikalarining rivojlanishiga olib keldi.

1934 yilgi MG PA

1922 yilga qadar Buyuk Britaniyada 183 ta avtoulov kompaniyalari mavjud edi, 1929 yilga kelib 58 ta kompaniya qoldi. [15] 1929 yilda ishlab chiqarishda Morris (1910 yilda William Morris tomonidan Oxfordda asos solingan) va Austin (Herbert Austin tomonidan Birmingemda 1905 yilda Wolseleydan ketganidan keyin tashkil etilgan) ustunlik qilgan, va ular Angliya mahsulotlarining 60 foizini ishlab chiqarishgan. Singer (Coventry mototsikl ishlab chiqaruvchisi 1905 yilda avtomobil ishlab chiqarishni boshladi) o'sha yili 15% ishlab chiqarish ulushi bilan uchinchi o'rinni egalladi. [14]

1932 yilda Angliya Frantsiyani o'zib Evropaning eng yirik avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchisiga aylandi (bu holat 1955 yilgacha saqlanib qolgan). 1937 yilda Buyuk Britaniyada 379310 dona yengil va 113946 tijorat transporti ishlab chiqarildi. [16] O'zining tengdoshlarining sovg'asini nishonlash uchun William Morris Viskount Nuffield bo'lganidan keyin 1938 yilda o'zining avtoulov kompaniyasini Nuffield tashkiloti deb nomlab qayta tashkil etdi, unga nafaqat Morris Motors va MG, balki Wolseley va Riley ham kirdi (velosiped kompaniyasi 1890 yilda Coventry shahrida tashkil etilgan va avtomobillar ishlab chiqargan). 1939 yilda eng yirik ishlab chiqaruvchilar Morris: 27%, Austin: 24%, Ford: 15%, Standard (1903 yilda Coventry shahrida tashkil etilgan): 13%, Rootes (Humber va Sunbeamni sotib olgan): 11%, Vauxhall (avtomobillarni 1903 yildan beri ishlab chiqargan va 1925 yilda GM tomonidan sotib olingan): 10%. [14]

1939 yildan 1955 yilgacha[tahrir]

Land Rover I seriyasi, 1948 yilda taqdim etilgan.

Ikkinchi Jahon urushi davrida Buyuk Britaniyada avtomobil ishlab chiqarish tijorat va harbiy transport vositalarini ishlab chiqarishga yo'l ochildi va ko'plab avtomobil zavodlari samolyot va aviatsion dvigatel ishlab chiqarishga o'tdi. Urushdan keyin hukumat po'lat etkazib berishni nazorat qildi va tashqi daromad keltiradigan eksport korxonalarini ta'minlashga ustuvor ahamiyat berildi. 1947 yilda po'latdan faqat ishlab chiqarilgan mahsulotning 75 foizini eksport qilgan korxonalargina foydalanishlari mumkin edi. Bu, kontinental Evropaning muqarrar ravishda cheklangan raqobati va Amerikada va Avstraliyada yangi transport vositalariga talabning o'sishi Amerika sanoatining ta'minoti darajasidan yuqori bo'lganligi sababli, Britaniya transport vositalarining eksporti rekord darajaga ko'tarildi va Buyuk Britaniya dunyodagi eng katta avtomobil exportyoriga aylandi. 1937 yilda Buyuk Britaniya jahon transport vositalarining 15% eksport qildi. 1950 yilga kelib, Buyuk Britaniya avtomobil ishlab chiqarishining 75 foizi va tijorat transport vositalarining 60 foizi eksport qilingan bir yilda, Buyuk Britaniya dunyodagi eksport qilinadigan transport vositalarining 52 foizini ta'minladi.

Bu holat 1950 yillarning o'rtalarigacha qoldi, shu vaqtga kelib Amerika sanoat ishlab chiqarishi Amerika talabiga javob berdi, va Evropa ishlab chiqarishi ham tiklanyapkan edi. 1952 yilga kelib Buyuk Britaniyadagi amerikalik ishlab chiqaruvchilar (Ford va GM ning Vauxhall) Britaniya bozorining 29 foizlik ulushiga ega edilar, bu esa Buyuk Britaniyaning mamlakatdagi ikkita eng yaxshi ishlab chiqaruvchilardan ikkitasining ulushidan oshib ketdi. Aynan shu kontekstda Viscount Nuffield o'z kompaniyasining Nuffield tashkiloti Astin bilan Britaniya motor korporatsiyasini (BMC) tashkil etishga qo'shilishga rozi bo'ldi. Shunday qilib, Astin, Morris, MG, Riley va Wolseley ni o'z ichiga olgan BMC 1952 yilda tashkil topgan va Britaniya bozorining 40 foiz ulushiga egalik qilgan. [13] Germaniya ishlab chiqarishi yil sayin o'sib bordi va 1953 yilga kelib u Frantsiya ishlab chiqarishidan oshdi va 1956 yilga kelib u Buyuk Britaniyaning ishlab chiqarishidan ustun keldi.

1955 yildan 1968 yilgacha[tahrir]

Yaguar E-type (1961 yilda taqdim etilgan)

1955 yilga kelib beshta kompaniya Buyuk Britaniyada ishlab chiqarilgan avtomobillarning 90 foizini ishlab chiqargan: BMC, Ford, Rootes, Standard-Triumph va Vauxhall. O'nlab yoki undan kamroq kichik ishlab chiqaruvchilardan Rover va Jaguar kuchlilari bo'lgan. 1960 yilga kelib Buyuk Britaniya dunyodagi ikkinchi eng yirik avtoulov ishlab chiqaruvchisi bo'lishdan uchinchi o'ringa tushib ketdi. Mehnat talab qiladigan usullar va keng model diapazoni ishlab chiqarish xarajatlarini kamaytirishga to'sqinlik qildi - Buyuk Britaniyaning birlik xarajatlari ularning asosiy yapon, evropa va amerikalik raqobatchilariga qaraganda yuqori edi. [17] Avtomobilsozlik kompaniyalarida ratsionalizatsiya qilish boshlangan bo'lsa ham, to'liq integratsiya amalga oshirilmadi. BMC aksiyadorlik kompaniyalarining markalari ostida ishlab chiqarishni davom ettirdi, ularning ko'plari bir-biri bilan raqobatlashdilar. [18] Standard-Triumph kompaniyasining zamonaviy ishlab chiqarish strategiyasini tatbiq etish orqali xarajatlarni kamaytirishga urinishlari deyarli 1960 yilda bankrotlikka olib keldi, natijada ularni Leyland Motors tijorat transport vositalarini ishlab chiqarish kompaniyasi sotib oldi. 1966 yilda BMC va Jaguar Britaniyaning Motor Holdings (BMH) kompaniyasini tashkil qilish uchun birlashdilar. Leyland Leyland-Triumph bilan bir qator savdo yutuqlariga erishdi va 1967 yilda Roverni sotib oldi. 1966 yilga kelib Buyuk Britaniya dunyodagi to'rtinchi yirik avtoulovlar ishlab chiqaruvchisi bo'ldi. 1964 yilda boshlangan asta-sekin jarayondan so'ng, 1967 yilda Chrysler UK (CUK) Rootes-ni to'liq sotib oldi.

1960-yillarda katta oilaviy avtoulovlar yahshi sotuvga ega edilar, xususan Ford Cortina (1962 yilda ishlab chiqarilgan), Austin / Morris 1800 (1964) va Vauxhall Viktor (1957). 60-yillarning oxirida, Rootes Group bozorning o'sib borayotgan sektorida yangi raqib - Hillman Hunterni ishga tushirdi.

Rover P6 1963 yilda ishlab chiqarilgan va Evropaning Yil avtomobili mukofotining birinchi g'olibi, 1960 yillarda Buyuk Britaniyada eng mashhur hashamatli model bo'lgan.

O'tgan asrning 60-yillari Britaniya bozorida chet el avtomobillarining sekin, ammo ishonchli o'sishi kuzatildi. G'arbiy Germaniyaning Volkswagen kompaniyasi 1953 yildan beri Buyuk Beetle britaniyaga import qilgan; bu mashina birinchi marta 1937 yilda natsistlar rejimi ostida Germaniya bozori uchun "xalq avtomobili" sifatida sotila boshlangan. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi tugaganidan o'n yil o'tgach, uning Buyuk Britaniya bozoriga chiqishi dushmanlik bilan kutib olindi, ko'pgina misollar tarqatilgandan keyin vandalizatsiya qilindi, ammo u tezda mashhur bo'lib ketdi va 1959 yilda 10 000 ga yaqin sotildi. Volkswagen, shuningdek, o'z odamlariga yuk tashuvchi va mikroavtobus modellarining namunalarini olib kirishni boshladi va 1963 yilga kelib Britaniyada 100 mingta avtomobil sotdi. [19] Frantsiyaning Renault kompaniyasi haqiqatan ham 1902 yildan 1962 yilgacha G'arbiy Londonning Acton shahrida joylashgan Buyuk Britaniyada o'z avtomobillarining bozor versiyalarini yaratdi, ammo uning mashhurligi haqiqatan ham Buyuk Britaniyada ishlab chiqarish tugaganidan keyin o'sdi va 1961 yilda Renault 4 minikarining kelishi bilan yordam berdi. 1965 yilda Renault 16 dunyodagi birinchi ishlab chiqarish xetchbek modeli. O'n yillikning oxiriga kelib, u Renault 6 kichikroq xetchbek modelini va Renault 12 rusumli o'rta salonni sotuvga chiqardi va ommalashishda davom etdi. [20] Renaultning fransiyalik raqibi Peugeot 1960-yillarda o'zining 404-ta saloni va bundan ham ko'proq 1968-yilda ishga tushirilgan 504- ning salonida muvaffaqiyat qozondi. [21] Bu kelgusi yigirma yil ichida xorijiy avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchilarning Buyuk Britaniya bozorida yanada ko'proq sotuvi uchun sahnani yaratdi, chunki ularning bozordagi ulushi o'sishda davom etdi.

O'tgan asrning 60-yillarida yapon avtomobillari Buyuk Britaniya bozorida paydo bo'la boshladi, garchi ular Britaniya yo'llarida kamdan-kam hol bo'lsa-da, 70-yillarning boshlarida ommalashib ketdi. Daihatsu Compagno 1964 yilda import boshlangan paytda Buyuk Britaniyada sotilgan birinchi yapon avtomobili edi. Ushbu mashina britaniyalik xaridorlarga yoqmadi va bir necha yil ichida sotuvdan chiqarildi, garchi Daihatsu 1980-yillarning boshlarida Buyuk Britaniya bozoriga qaytib kelsa. [22] Bir yil o'tgach, Toyota Buyuk Britaniyaga avtomobillarni import qilgan ikkinchi yapon avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchisi bo'ldi. Undan ko'p o'tmay Nissan (Buyuk Britaniya bozorida Datsun brendidan foydalangan) va Mazda tomonidan ta'qib qilindi. Honda u 1972 yilgacha Buyuk Britaniyaga yo'lovchi avtomobil import boshlash emas edi-da, shuningdek, ushbu bosqichda tomonidan mototsikl bozorida katta muvaffaqiyat zavq bo'ldi [23]

1968 yildan 1987 yilgacha[tahrir]

1970 yildan 1996 yilgacha ishlab chiqarilgan birinchi avlod Range Rover .

1968 yilga kelib Buyuk Britaniyada avtoulovlarni ishlab chiqarishda to'rtta kompaniya ustunlik qildi: BLMC, Chrysler (Buyuk Britaniya), Ford va Vauxhall (GM). Rootes Group Chrysler UK nomini Amerika avtomobil giganti Chrysler tomonidan egallab olgandan keyin oldi, u fransuz avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchisi Simca- ni ham o'z qo'liga oldi.

70-yillarning birinchi yarmida yapon avtomobillari, xususan Nissan tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan Datsun rusumli mashinalar katta shuhrat qozondi, shu bilan burga frantsuz avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchi Renault va Germaniya avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchisi Volkswagen ham Britaniya bozoriga yahshi ko'rsatkichlarga ega edi. Bunda yangi avtomobillar, xususan 1972 yilda Renault 5 va 1974 yilda Volkswagen Golf modellari yordam berdi.

Bozorning hashamatli pallasida, Britaniyaning Leyland kompaniyasi 1976 yilda Rover SD1-ni chiqarganda, dunyodagi birinchi ishlab chiqaruvchilardan biri bo'lib, avtomobilini hatchback qilib chiqardi. Ushbu avtomobil Britaniya Leylandida ratsionalizatsiyaning boshlanishini anglatadi, SD1 ikkita model qatorini - Rover P6 va Triumph 2000/2500 ni almashtirdi .

1970-yillarda Nissanning Datsun rusumli avtomobillarning ommabopligi ularning past narxlari, arzon ishlatilishi, yaxshi jihozlar darajasi va ko'plab britaniya avtomobillariga qaraganda yuqori darajadagi ishonchlilik darajasiga bog'liq edi.

Buyuk Britaniya bozoridagi BLMC ulushi 1971 va 1973 yillar orasida 40% dan 32% gacha pasaydi, yangi Morris Marina va Austin Allegro oilaviy avtomobillari Britaniya bozorida yaxshi sotilgan, ammo ko'plab eksport bozorlarida mashhur emas edi, shu bilan birga ushbu yangi modellarning sifat darajasi va dizayni ommaviy axborot vositalari tanqidiga uchragan edi.

Triumph Dolomite Sprint 1973 yildan 1980 yilgacha ishlab chiqarilgan.

1974 yilga kelib, Buyuk Britaniyaning jahondagi avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchisi sifatidagi mavqei oltinchi o'ringa tushib ketdi. 1974 yilda, BLMC va Chrysler UK hukumatga moliyaviy yordam so'rab murojaat qilishdi. Hukumat ikki kompaniya o'rtasida birlashish g'oyasini rad etdi va buning o'rniga Buyuk Britaniyaning Chrysler kompaniyasi kredit oldi va BLMC o'z kelajagini aniqlash uchun bir qator tadqiqotlarni o'tkazdi. Lord Ryder boshchiligidagi hukumatning BLMC rasmiy so'rovi, BLMC strategiyasi to'g'ri ekanligini ta'kidladi, ammo mehnat munosabatlarini mexanizatsiyalash va yaxshilash orqali ishlab chiqarish samaradorligini oshirish uchun juda katta hukumat sarmoyasini talab qilar edi.

1975 yilda Britaniya Leyland (BL) sifatida BLMC samarali milliylashtirilishiga qaramay, tiklanish hech qachon yuz bermadi. 1978 yilda Chrysler o'zining Evropadagi manfaatlarini (jumladan Buyuk Britaniyadagi manfaatlarini) Peugeot- ga sotib yubordi, bu Amerikadagi qiyinchiliklarga e'tiborni qaratish uchun imkon berdi. Buyuk Britaniyadagi kompaniyaga Peugeot-Talbot deb nom berildi, Chrysler tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan avtomobillar ishlab chiqarilishi davom ettirildi, oxirgi Rootes tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan Avenger avtomobili 1981 yilda to'xtatildi. Peugeot, shuningdek, Solara deb nomlangan Alpine ning salon versiyasini ishlab chiqdi va shuningdek, Chrysler tomonidan o'zining Evropadagi operatsiyalarini sotishda yaratilgan Tagora- ni taqdim etdi. 1981 yilda Sunbeam- ni Peugeot bazasidagi Samba bilan almashtirdi. [17] [24]

Boshqa ko'plab rivojlangan mamlakatlarda bo'lgani kabi, 70-yillarda Buyuk Britaniyada ishlab chiqarilgan avtomobillar uchun katta o'zgarishlar yuz berdi. 1959 yildan 1965 yilgacha BMC tomonidan bir nechta yangi modellarda kashshof bo'lgan oldingi g'ildirakli haydash, o'nlab yillar davomida faqat orqa g'ildirakli modellarni ishlab chiqargandan so'ng, oilaviy avtomobillarda odatiy holga aylandi. Evropada 1965 yilda frantsuz Renault 16- da paydo bo'lgan hatchback korpusi uslubi yanada ommalashdi, 1980-yillarning boshlariga kelib xetchbek bilan Britaniyaning eng ko'p sotiladigan mashinalari sotila boshladi.

1980 yilgacha ko'plab Ford va Vauxhall modellari, shuningdek, ota-kompaniyasining qit'a fabrikalarida ishlab chiqarilar edi. Ford bu bosqichda Capri va Granada ishlab chiqarishni Germaniyaga o'tkazgan, yangi Fiesta supermini ishlab chiqarish esa 1976 yilda Britaniya, G'arbiy Germaniya va Ispaniyadagi yangi zavod o'rtasida taqsimlangan. General Motors nafaqat o'zining Vauxhall va Opel markali avtomashinalarini 1970-yillarda mexanik ravishda bir xil qilishga qaror qildi, balki ba'zi Vauxhall markali mashinalarini G'arbiy Germaniya va Belgiyadagi Opel zavodlaridan va uning Corsa supermini (Vauxhall Nova-da) 1982 yilda ochilgan Ispaniyaning Saragoza shahridagi zavodda faqat yig'ilgan va Buyuk Britaniyaga import qilingan. Britaniyalik Leylandning Italiya singari mamlakatlaridagi ( Xitoyda Innocenti savdo markasi ostida ishlab chiqariladigan) avtoulovlari asta-sekin yopilib yoki boshqa avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchilarga sotila boshlandi, shuning uchun 1980-yillarga kelib u butunlay Britaniyada joylashgan edi.

1980 yilda taqdim etilgan Austin metro

1979 yilda Buyuk Britaniyaning Tetcher hukumati saylanishi bilan siyosiy sahnasi o'zgargan bo'lsa-da, hukumat ommaviy bozorning yangi modellarini ( Mini Metro, Maestro, Montego va boshqa Honda bilan hamkorlikda ishlab chiqarilgan Rover 800 ) rivojlantirish uchun mablag'lar bilan BL-ni qo'llab-quvvatlashda davom etdi, ularning barchasi 1980 va 1986 yillarda boshlangan. Metro ushbu mashinalarning eng muvaffaqiyatlisi bo'lgan.

Avtomobillarni yig'ish, Yaguarlardan tashqari, ikkita markaziy zavodga - Longbridge va Covley da yig'ilgan. 1986 yil iyul oyida BL nomi Rover Group deb o'zgartirildi. [24]

1980-yillarning o'rtalariga kelib, oldingi g'ildirakli haydash endi ommaviy bozor avtomobillarida bundan mustasno emas edi, aksariyat yangi modellar xetchbek korpusi uslubiga ega bo'ldilar.

Supermini sektori 70-yillarning boshlaridan boshlab juda tez rivojlandi. BMC Mini o'zining 20 yilligi arafasida mashhur bo'lib qoldi, ammo Britaniya Leyland vorisi tashkiloti 1970-yillarning o'rtalariga kelib zamonaviy va amaliy alternativa ustida ishlashni boshladi, natijada 1980 yilda Austin metrosi paydo bo'ldi - yangi avtomashinada zamonaviy uslublar va xetchbeklar mavjud edi. Fiat 127, Renault 5 va Volkswagen Polo kabi taqqoslanadigan xorijiy mahsulotlar ham Buyuk Britaniyada mashhur bo'lgan edi.

O'tgan asrning 80-yillarida xorijiy avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchilari Renault, Peugeot, Citroen (Frantsiya), Volvo ( Shvetsiya ), Volkswagen (G'arbiy Germaniya) va Fiat ( Italiya ) singari britan bozoriga chiqishni davom ettirdilar.

Rossiyada ishlab chiqarilgan Lada, birinchi marta 1974 yilda Buyuk Britaniyada sotilgan, shuningdek, Fiat-ning eskirgan dizayniga qaramay, Britaniyada ham yaxshi sotilgan, uning arzonligi xaridorlarning e'tiborini tortgan. 1980-yillarning oxiriga kelib, to'rt g'ildirakli Niva va oldi g'ildirakli xetchbek bilan Samara, uzoq vaqtdan beri boshqariladigan Riva-ni tan olgan holda, Britaniyada Lada sotuvi yiliga 30 000 dan ortiqni tashkil etdi (yangi avtomobillarning taxminan 1,5%). bozor), ammo 1990 yildan keyin o'sib borayotgan raqobat va modellarning yangilanmaganligi natijasida to'xtab qoldi. 1997 yilda Lada emissiya talablarini qondirishda qiyinchiliklar tufayli Britaniyaga import nihoyat to'xtatildi. Bundan tashqari, Skoda 70-80-yillarda Volkswagen tomonidan egallab olinganidan so'ng 1990-yillarda zamonaviy texnologiyalar va zamonaviy uslublarga ega yangi modellarni taqdim etib munosib sotilishidan zavq oldi. Zastava lar ham Fiat dizayni asosida 70-yillardan beri ishlab chiqarilgan mashinalari ham 1980-yillarda Britaniyada yaxshi sotilgan, ammo avtomobilsozlik 1992 yilda Yugoslaviyadagi fuqarolar urushi natijasida kiritilgan sanktsiyalar tufayli importni to'xtatishga majbur bo'lgan. Biroq, 1998 ga kelib, Skoda Sharqiy Yevropa dan import qilinadigan yagona avtomobil edi va byudjet-baholi Uzoq Sharq dan import qilingan Daewoo, Kia, Hyundai va Proton lar bilan raqobat qilar edilar.

1980-yillarda General Motors Britaniyada ko'tarilishni boshidan kechirdi, chunki Vauxhall markali avtomobillar ularning bozordagi ulushini oshirdi va kompaniyaning obro'si yaxshilandi. 1980 yil boshida u Viva avtomobilini oldi g'ildirakli xetchbek va estate - Astra bilan almashtirdi, Britaniyada va qit'adagi Opel zavodlarida ishlab chiqarilar edi. MK2 Cavalier 1981 yilda sotuvga chiqarildi va kompaniyaning o'n yillikdagi eng ko'p sotilgan avtomobili bo'ldi. Chevette uchun uning o'rnini Nova egalladi, 1983 yilda ishga tushirilgan Ispaniyaning Opel Corsa ning yangilagan versiyasi. 1984 yilda sotuvga chiqqanidan ko'p o'tmay, MK2 Astra - yilning eng yaxshi avtomobili deb tan olindi, va bundan ikki yil o'tib, flagman MK2 Carlton ( Opel Omega ).

1987 yildan 2001 yilgacha[tahrir]

Rover 600 seriyali, 1993 yildan 1999 yilgacha ishlab chiqarilgan

1986 yil iyul oyida Nissan Sanderlendda yangi zavodni ochganida Evropada ishlab chiqarishni yo'lga qo'ygan birinchi yapon avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchisi bo'ldi. Zavod dastlab Bluebirdni ishlab chiqargan va 1990 yildan boshlab uning davomchisi Primera, MK2 Micra 1992 yilda unga qo'shilgan. Toyota Derby yonidagi Burnastonda 1992 boshida yangi zavod ochdi[25]

Peugeot Peugeot 309 xetchbeklarini Rytonda (dastlab Rootes Group fabrikasi) 1985 yil oktyabr oyida ishlab chiqara boshlagan, undan ikki yil o'tgach Peugeot 405.   1990 chi yillar davomida 306 va 206 modellari ishlab chiqarildi.   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (August 2008)">iqtibos kerak</span> ] Honda ning korxonasi Austin Rover / Rover Group bilan hamkorlikda ikki marka o'rtasida taqsimlangan turli xil dizaynlarni ko'rdi. Korxona 1994 yil fevral oyida, British Aerospace Rover Groupni Germaniyaning BMW avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchisiga 800 million funt sterlingga sotganida yakunlandi. [26] Sotib olish bu 112 yil ichida birinchi marta Buyuk Britaniyada endi Buyuk Britaniyaga tegishli bo'lgan avtoulov ishlab chiqaruvchisi yoq edi. BMW'ning Rover Group-ga egalik qilishi, bir nechta yangi, zamonaviy bozor modellarini ishlab chiqishini ko'rib, Britaniya brendiga o'zining ota-kompaniyasiga mos keladigan tasvirni berdi. Shuningdek, BMW MG markasini 1995 yilda yangi arzon MGF sport avtomobilida, shuningdek, Land Rover- ning bozordagi mavqeini mustahkamladi. 2000 yil mart oyida BMW qarama-qarshi ravishda Rover Groupning tarqalishini e'lon qildi. [27] [28] Land Roverni Fordga sotishda u Mini markasiga huquqini saqlab qoldi. [29] MG va Rover marralari Phoenix konsorsiumiga sotildi, u guruh qoldiqlarini MG Rover deb belgiladi va barcha ishlab chiqarishni Longbridge zavodida jamladi. Roverdan ajralganidan so'ng, Honda Swindondagi yangi zavodda Buyuk Britaniyada Civic modellarini yaratishni davom ettirdi.   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (August 2008)">iqtibos kerak</span> ]

Bentley Arnage, 1998 yildan 2009 yilgacha ishlab chiqarilgan

Ford esa Aston Martin ni sentyabr 1987 yilda oshkor bo'lmagan mablag'ga sotib oldi [30] [31] va Yaguar ni noyabr 1989 yilda $2.38 milliard dollarga [32] Yangi kichik X turidagi Jaguarni ishlab chiqarish Halewood-da 2000 yil oxirida boshlangan. Asr oxiriga kelib, Ford Land Rover- ni ham sotib oldi. [33]

1998 yilda Vickers plc kompaniyasi Rolls-Royce Motors ni, shu jumladan Bentleyni kim oshdi savdosiga qo'ydi. [34] Volkswagen Group 780 million AQSh dollari taklifi bilan kim oshdi savdosida g'olib chiqdi, ammo Rolls-Royce nomini britaniyalik bo'lmagan egalariga berilishini taqiqlash huquqiga ega bo'lgan Rolls-Royce plc ni BMW kompaniyasiga o'z huquqlarini 65 million AQSh dollariga sotishga rozi bo'ldi. Keyinchalik, Rolls-Royce markasini boshqarish 2003 yilda Volkswagen-dan BMW-ga o'tish to'g'risida kelishib olindi.

O'tgan asrning 90-yillarida, 80-yillarda virtual uyqu holatiga o'tganidan so'ng, arzon sport avtomobillari bozori jonlandi. 1989 yilda ishga tushirilganidan keyin Yaponiyada ishlab chiqarilgan Mazda MX-5 mashhurligi bilan ajralib turardi. Rover 1990-yillarning boshlarida yangi sport avtomobilini ishlab chiqishni boshladi va nihoyat 1995 yilda MG F ikki o'rindiqli roadster ni taqdim etdi. 1996 yilda ishlab chiqarilgan Lotus Elise, shuningdek, 2000 yilda sotilgan Vauxhall VX220 ( Elizada asoslangan) ham ushbu bozor sohasida nisbatan yuqori sotuvga ega edi.

2001 yildan 2011 yilgacha[tahrir]

2008 yilda sotuvga qo'yilgan Lotus Evora

2000 yil may oyida Ford o'zining Ford Dagenham zavodida yengil avtomashinalarini yig'ishni 2002 yilda to'xtatilishini e'lon qildi, bu esa Buyuk Britaniyada 90 yillik Ford avtoulovlari yig'ilishini tugatdi. [35] Shu bilan birga Ford 500 million AQSh dollari miqdorida sarmoya kiritishini ma'lum qildi va dizel dvigatellari zavodini kengaytirishni, va Dagenhamni dunyodagi eng katta dizel dvigatellar markaziga aylantirishni va avtomobil yig'ishda yo'qotilgan 1900 ta ish o'rnini qoplash uchun 500 ga yaqin yangi ish joylarini yaratishni rejalashtirdi. 2004 yil dekabr oyida Ford yana 169 million funt sterling miqdorida sarmoya kiritishini va Dagenham zavodida yiliga bir million dizel dvigatel ishlab chiqarishni ko'paytirishni elon qildi. [36]

2003 yil mart oyida Vauxhallning "Luton" avtomobillarni yig'ish zavodining yopilishi Ellesmere portini Buyuk Britaniyada qolgan yagona Vauxhxall yig'ish zavodi sifatida qoldirdi. General Motors shuningdek Vidaro va Movano singari mikroavtobuslarni ishlab chiqaradigan, shuningdek Renault va Nissan rusumli van larini ishlab chiqaradigan Lutondagi Bedford works ni saqlab qoldi. 2007 yil aprel oyida Ellesmere porti 2010 yildan boshlab yangi avlod Astra ishlab chiqarishi tasdiqlangan edi. [37]

MG Rover 2000-yillarning boshida yangi avtomobil turlarini ishlab chiqarish uchun boshqa avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchilar bilan hamkorlikda mumkin bo'lgan korxonalarni o'rganishni o'tkazdi. 2005 yilda firmaning aktivlari Xitoyning avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchisi - Nanjing Automobile tomonidan sotib olindi va Longbridge 2007 yil yozida qisman qayta ochildi, dastlabki ishchi kuchi taxminan 250 kishidan iborat bo'lib, 2008 yil avgustda ishga tushirilgan MG TF ishlab chiqarishni qayta boshlashga tayyorlangan edi.

Aston Martin DBS V12, 2007 yildan beri ishlab chiqarilgan

2006 yil aprel oyida Peugeot o'zining Ryton zavodini yopdi va 206 ishlab chiqarishni Slovakiyaga ko'chirdi. [38] [39] 2007 yilda Ford Aston Martin kompaniyasini Yaqin Sharq sarmoyadorlari tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlanadigan Buyuk Britaniya boshchiligidagi konsorsiumga sotib yubordi va kompaniyada ozgina ulushni saqlab qoldi va dvigatellarni ham etkazib berishni davom ettirishga rozi bo'ldi. [40] [41] 2008 yilda Ford Jaguar Land Rover avtomobilini Hindistonning Tata Motors kompaniyasiga 1,15 milliard funt sterlingga sotdi. [42] [43] 2009 yil noyabr oyida gollandiyalik sport ishlab chiqaruvchisi Spyker Cars u ishlab chiqarishni Zeewolde'dan Whitley, Coventry ga ko'chirishni elon qildi va Buyuk Britaniyada ishlab chiqarish 2010 yil fevralda boshlandi. [44] [45]

2011–2019[tahrir]

2011 yilda Buyuk Britaniyada ishlab chiqarishga kirgan MG 6

2011 yilning yanvar oyida BMW ikkita yangi ikki eshikli sport krossoveri ishga tushirilishini va Mini turlarini kengaytirishni e'lon qildi. [46] [47] 2011 yil mart oyida Jaguar Land Rover o'zining Halewood zavodida qo'shimcha 1500 ishchi yollashini e'lon qildi va 2 milliard funt sterlingdan ko'proq etkazib berish bo'yicha Buyuk Britaniyada joylashgan kompaniyalar bilan uning yangi Range Rover Evoque modelini ishlab chiqarish uchun shartnomalarga qo'l qo'di. [48] [49]

Iyun oyida Nissan o'zining Qashqai rusumidagi modelini almashtirish uchun dizayn va ishlab chiqarish Buyuk Britaniyada umumiy £ 192 million funt sterling miqdorida investitsiya qilinish haqida e'lon qildi.[50] [51] Iyun oyida BMW Mini modellarni ettita modelga kengaytirish doirasida 500 million funt sterling investitsiya kiritishini e'lon qildi. [52] [53] 2011 yil sentyabr oyida Jaguar Land Rover yangi dvigatel zavodini qurishga 355 million funt sterling sarmoya kiritishini tasdiqladi. Noyabr oyida Toyota Buyuk Britaniyani o'zining C-segment oilaviy avtomobilining hatchback versiyalari uchun yagona Evropa ishlab chiqarish bazasiga aylantirishni rejalashtirayotganini va natijada 100 million funt sterling miqdorida sarmoya kiritilishini e'lon qildi. [54] [55]

2014 yilning yanvaridan iyunigacha bo'lgan yarim yillikda Buyuk Britaniya 9 yil ichida yangi avtomobil sotish bo'yicha eng yaxshi yilni o'tkazdi. Ushbu davrda 1,28 million yangi mashina sotildi, bu 2013 yilning shu davriga nisbatan 10 foizga ko'p. 2014-yilda 1,5 milliondan ortiq avtomobillar ishlab chiqarildi, eng yuqori 2007 yildan beri [56]

2019 yilda Buyuk Britaniyada eng ko'p sotilgan transport vositasi Ford Fiesta bo'ldi, undan keyin Volkswagen Golf, Ford Transit, Ford Focus va Vauxhall Corsa. [57]

2020 yildan boshlab[tahrir]

2019 yilda Honda o'zining Swindon zavodi 2021 yilga qadar yopilishini e'lon qildi. [58]

Yig'ish zavodlari[tahrir]

Company Parent company Parent headquarters Plant Models produced Production (latest figures)
AC Cars AC Cars United Kingdom West Norwood AC MKVI n/a
Alexander Dennis Alexander Dennis United Kingdom Falkirk Enviro 200Dart, Enviro300, Enviro400 n/a
Alexander Dennis Alexander Dennis United Kingdom Guildford Javelin chassis, R-Series chassis, Enviro300 chassis n/a
Ariel Ariel United Kingdom Crewkerne Ariel Atom 70 (2013)[59]
Ascari Cars Ascari Cars United Kingdom Banbury Ascari Ecosse, Ascari A10 n/a
Aston Martin Lagonda Aston Martin Lagonda United Kingdom Gaydon One-77, Cygnet, DB9, DBS, Vantage, Virage, Vanquish, Rapide 5,323 (2010)[60]
Bentley Motors Volkswagen Group Germany Crewe Azure, Brooklands Coupé, Continental Flying Spur, Continental GT, Mulsanne 10,014
Briggs Automotive Company Briggs Automotive Company United Kingdom Liverpool BAC Mono n/a
Bristol Cars Bristol Cars United Kingdom Filton Blenheim, Fighter, Blenheim Speedster n/a
Caterham Cars Caterham Cars United Kingdom Dartford R400, CSR260 435 (2003)
Dennis Eagle Ros Roca SA Spain Warwick Duo, One Pass, Beta 2 n/a
Ginetta Cars LNT Automotive United Kingdom Leeds G40, G40J, G40R, G50, G55, G55 GT3, G60 n/a
GM Manufacturing Luton[61] Adam Opel AG Germany Luton Opel/Vauxhall Vivaro, Renault Trafic, Nissan Primastar 77,836[62]
Honda of the UK Manufacturing Honda Motor Company Japan Swindon CR-V, Jazz, Civic, Civic Type-R 134,146 (2016)[63]
Jaguar Land Rover[64] Tata Motors[65] India Castle Bromwich XF, XJ, XK,[66] F-Type 54,030 (includes Halewood production)[67]
Jaguar Land Rover Tata Motors India Halewood Land Rover Discovery Sport, Range Rover Evoque see JLR Castle Bromwich and Solihull
Jaguar Land Rover Tata Motors India Solihull Defender, Discovery 4, Range Rover Sport, Range Rover 234,647(Includes Halewood production)
Leyland Trucks Paccar United States Leyland DAF CF, DAF LF, DAF XF[68] 17,478[69]
LEVC Geely China Coventry TX 2,346 (2003)
Lotus Cars Geely China Hethel Elise, Exige, Evora 2,935 (Lotus + GM)
McLaren Automotive McLaren Group United Kingdom Woking MP4-12C, P1, P1 GTR, 570S, 650S, 675LT, 540C, 570GT 10,000 (total to 2016)[70]
MG Motor SAIC Motor China Longbridge MG 6, MG 3 n/a
Mini BMW Germany Plant Oxford Clubman, Convertible, Coupé, Roadster, Hardtop/Hatch 210,973 (2016)
Morgan Motor Company Morgan Motor Company United Kingdom Malvern Morgan Aero 8, Morgan Plus 4 1000 (2003)
Nissan UK Nissan Motor Company Japan Sunderland Juke, Leaf, Note, Qashqai 507,444 (2016)
Noble Automotive Noble Automotive United Kingdom Barwell Noble M12, Noble M14 n/a
Optare Ashok Leyland India Leeds Solo, Alero n/a
Plaxton Alexander Dennis United Kingdom Scarborough Panther, Paragon, Profile, Primo, Centro n/a
Plaxton Alexander Dennis United Kingdom Sheffield Cheetah, Pronto, Beaver n/a
Rolls-Royce Motor Cars BMW Germany Goodwood Ghost, Phantom, Phantom Coupé, Phantom Drophead Coupé 3,538[71]
Sunbeam Sunbeam Motor Car Company United Kingdom Coventry City EV, Electra EV n/a
Toyota Manufacturing UK Toyota Motor Corporation Japan Burnaston Corolla (hatchback and station wagon)
TVR Motor Company TVR Motor Company United Kingdom Blackpool Sagaris, Tuscan, T350, Tamora 871 (2003)
Wrightbus Wrightbus United Kingdom Ballymena Wright Eclipse, Wright Solar, Wright Pulsar n/a
Vauxhall Motors Adam Opel AG Germany Ellesmere Port Opel Astra/Vauxhall Astra 118,112 (2016)
1910-1980 yillarda Buyuk Britaniyada avtotransport vositalarini ishlab chiqarish - avtomobillar va tijorat transport vositalari (1000 dona) [72]
Yil 200 400 ga teng 600 800 1000 1200 ga teng 1400 1600 1800 2000 yil 2200 Jami
1910 yil split mavjud emas   14
1920 yil split mavjud emas   70 *
1930 yil 170 67 237
1940 yil 2 132 134
1950 yil 523 263 785
1960 yil 1,353 458 1.811
1970 yil 1,641 458 2,098
1980 yil 924-yil 389 1312

(* prognoz)

UK Motor Vehicle Production by year 1990 to 2013 – cars and commercial vehicles (1,000 units)[73]
Year 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Total
1990 1,296 270   1,566
1991 1,237 217   1,454
1992 1,292 248   1,540
1993 1,376 193   1,569
1994 1,467 228   1,695
1995 1,532 233   1,765
1996 1,686 238   1,924
1997 1,698 238   1,936
1998 1,748 227   1,976
1999 1,787 186   1,973
2000[74] 1,641 172   1,814
2001 1,492 193   1,685
2002 1,630 191   1,821
2003 1,658 189   1,846
2004 1,647 209   1,856
2005 1,596 207   1,802
2006 1,442 208   1,650
2007 1,535 216   1,750
2008 1,447 203   1,650
2009 999 91   1,090
2010 1,270 123   1,393
2011[75] 1,344 121   1,465
2012[76] 1,465 112   1,577
2013[77][78] 1,510 88   1,597
2014[79][80] 1,528 71   1,599
2015[81][82] 1,588 94   1,682
2016[63][83] 1,722 94   1,817

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