Seuldagi G-20 sammiti (2010)

Vikipediya, ochiq ensiklopediya

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Hujjat[yaratish]

Seuldagi G20 sammiti — G20 vakil davlatlar hukumati rahbarlarining beshinchi uchrashuvi, 2010-yilning 11-12-noyabrlarida Janubiy Koreyaning poytaxti Seul shahrida oʻtkazilgan. Jahon moliya sistemasida va iqtisodiyotida[1] kuzatilgan keskin oʻzgarishlar hamda birdaniga moliya bozorlari inqirozga yuz tutgani sammit chogʻida muhokama qilingan. Seul shahri G20 sammitlari tarixida ilk bor mezbonlikni qoʻlga kiritgan.[2] G20 sammitlari xalqaro iqtisodiy hamkorligini umumjahon miqyosida muhokama qilinishi uchun asosiy forumlardan biri hisoblanadi.[3]

Seulda oʻtkazilgan G20 sammitida asosiy mavzu sifatida Inqirozga qarshi kurash shiori tanlangan.[4]

Kun mavzusi[tahrir]

Sammit ishtirokchilari yaqin oʻrta vaqtdagi va koʻp yillik hukm surgan siyosiy[5] savollarni koʻrib chiqishgan, jumladan:

  • Global iqtisodiyotni oʻsishini taʼminlash[6]
  • Jahon iqisodiyotini mustahkamligini va bir hil pallada ushlash uchun sharoitlar yaratish[6]
  • Xalqaro moliyaviy sistema nazoratini kengaytirish[6]
  • Xalqaro moliyaviy muassisalarini zamonaviylashtirish[6]
  • Global moliyaviy xavfsizlik tarmogʻini yaratish[7]
  • Rivojlanish borasida savollar[7]
  • Valyuta urushining tavakkalchiligi

Vakillar sammit liderlari bilan sammitdan oldin uchrashishgan. Ushbu sammitda har bir mamlakat aʼzolariga halqaro maydonda valyuta narxlarini har soniyada oʻzgarishi va bu holat qaysi bir mamlakatni moliyaviy inqirozga tortib ketishi mumkinligi ularning chuqur munozaralar yuritishiga majbur qilgan.[8]

Tayyorgarlik[tahrir]

Sammit logotipi oʻziga ikki tasvirni mujassam qiladi: (a) dengiz ustidan quyoshning chiqishi; va (b) tantanali koreys maʼdaniyatini mujassam etadigan chiroqchalar(cheongsachorong).[1] Sammit oʻtkazilishi uchun uch koreys sanʼati mujassam boʻlgan orollar va Han River daryosida kesishadigan Banpo va Dongjak koʻpriklari sammitning asosiy oʻtkazilish joylari sifatida foydalanilgan.[9] Afsuski orollardagi qurilishlar tufayli sammit oʻtkazilishi uchun joy markaziy Yarmarka zaliga koʻchirilgan. Koreya Respublikasi qurolli kuchlari va Seul agentligi qoshidagi poytaht politsiyasi xavfsizlikni yuqori yoʻsinda barcha obyektlarda taminlashgan.

Transport[tahrir]

Jahon liderlarining koʻpchiligi va xalqaro ommaviy axborot vositalari hodimlari Incheon Xalqaro Aerporti orqali Koreya Respublikasiga qabul qilingan boʻlib aeroport ichidagi mahsus yoʻlakchalar orqali mehmonlar sammit oʻtkaziladigan joyga yoʻl olishgan.

Qatnashuv[tahrir]

AQSh prezidenti Barack Obama va Turkiya Bosh vaziri Erdoğan bilan oʻz fikrlarini oʻrtoqlashmoqda.

Seuldagi sammitda 19 mamlakat va Yevropa Ittifoqi oʻz doirasiga Yevropa maslahati va Yevropa Komissiyasini[10] oladigan G20 vakillari va har bir qitʼa hududlaridan mamlakatlar, halqaro tashkilotlar vakillari ushbu sammit ishtirokchilari qatoriga kiritilgan. Janubiy Koreya Hokimiyati bundan oldin toʻrt uchrashuvda ketma-ket qatnashib kelayotgan Niderlandlarni G20 sammitga taklif etishdan bosh tortgan. Bu mamlakat oʻrniga Singapur taklif qilingan.[11] Bu sammit oʻtgan toʻrt sammitdan farq qilgan holda, G20 vakilllari orasida toʻrtta ayollar ishtirok etishgan. Shulardan Argentina Prezidenti Kirshner, Avstraliya Bosh vaziri Julia Gillard, Olmoniya Kansleri Angela Merkel va Braziliya Prezidenti Dilma Rousefflar oʻz mamlakatlari qiziqishlarini qolgan ishtirokchilar bilan keng muhokama qilishgan.[12] Seuldagi G20 sammiti Torontoda oʻtkazilgan sammitdan keyin saylangan Avstraliya Bosh vaziri Julia Gillard[13] va Singapur Bosh vaziri Lee Hsien Loonglar uchun ilk bor G20 sammiti vakillari boʻlib ishtirok etish nasib etgan.

Sammit ishtirokchilari[tahrir]

Taklif qilingan mamlakatlar[tahrir]


Halqaro tashkilotlar[tahrir]

Xavfsizlik[tahrir]

Seul markazidagi Koreya bosh hukumat markazida Milliy Xavfsizlik hodimlari qator turishi. 7-noyabr, 2010-yil
Namoyishchilar G20 sammitiga qarshilik namoyishi asosida bayroqlar bilan Seul markaziga yigʻilishgan. 7-noyabr, 2010-yil

G20 sammiti xavfsizligini taʼminlash juda katta muammolarni keltirib chiqargan. Koreya harbiylari, politsiyachilari keng yoʻsinda sammit ishtirokchilari xavfsizligini taʼminlash javobgarligini oʻz boʻyniga olishgan. Aeroportdan to sammit oʻtkaziladigan joy transport qatnovlari va shuning yaqinidagi barcha obyektlar qattiq nazorat ostida boʻlib qoʻshimcha kuchlar sifatida:

  • Prezident xavfsizlik hizmati
  • Milliy xavfsizlik razvedkasi
  • Milliy mudofa vazirligi
  • Favqulodda vaziyatlar boʻyicha milliy agentlik

xavfsizlikni taʼminlashga jalb qilingan.

Sammitda xavfsizlikni taʼminlash maqsadida, uchrashuvdan oldin Koreya politsiyasi, qurolli kuchlar, maxsus jangchilar kimyoviy, biologik va radiaktiv hujumlar holatida qanday qilib jabrlanganlarni qutqarish oʻquv darslarini oʻtkazishgan .[42] G20 sammitida ishtirokchilar namoyishga bogʻliq boʻlmagan xavfsizlik muaommolarini koʻtarishgan. Masalan, baʼzi bir tahlilchilar tomonidan bu sammitning Janubiy Koreyada oʻtkazilishi mamlakatga muvafaqqiyat keltiribgina qolmay bir vaqtning oʻzida Phenyan bilan kelishmovchiliklarga olib kelishi mumkinligi aytib oʻtilgan.[43] Shuncha tahlilchilar tanqidiga qaramasdan aʼzo mamlakatlarning ishtiroki koʻpgina sharhlarga boyigani va sammit masalasida namoyishlar moʻtadilligi chegaralangan shaklda valyuta muammolari va savdo disbalansi oʻsishi yechimini topish imkoniyatini bergan.[44][45][46][47][48][49][50] Ishtirokchilar muhim savollar uchun sharhlovchilar bilan oʻz fikrlari oʻrtoqlashmagan . Bulardan biri Moliyaviy inqiroz uchrashuvlarida bir necha bor ishtirok etgan Eswar Prasad sammitda yagona fikr mavjud emasligini taʼkidlagan. Xalqaro Valyuta Jamgʻarmasi raisi Dominique Strauss-Kahn sammit chogʻida:

« Orttirilgan G20 hulosadan, yangi G20 gʻoya muhimroqdir - deya oʻz fikrini bildirgan.[45] »

Jahon iqtisodiyotida birdamlikni tiklashga zaruriy boshqaruv prinsiplarga asoslangan iqtisodiyotning har yili aniqlik bilan yuqori tarzda cheklangan profitsit hisoblarining oʻz vaqtidagi ish yuritmalari, defitsitning tushirish omillari ishlab chiqilgan kelishuvlar asosida ish yuritish pogʻonasiga erishilgan. Liderlar shu bilan birgalikda Seulni rivojlanish miqyosidagi boshqaruv prinsiplari va kam mamlakatlar bilan rivojlanish sohasini birgalikda amalga oshirish ishlarini yuritib iqtisodiy oʻsish hamda kambagʻallikni qisqartirish muammolarini hal qilish gʻoyalari kelishib olingan. Vashingtondagi oʻtkazilgan sammit doirasiga nisbatan Seuldagi sammitda mamlakatning toʻlaqonli aralashuvi muhim rol oʻynaydigan erkin bozorlar kam koʻrsatilgan.[51][52]

Izohlar[tahrir]

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Havolalar[tahrir]