Turklar

Vikipediya, ochiq ensiklopediya
Turklar
Türkler
Umumiy aholi soni

70 - 75 million
(dunyo aholisining tahminan 1.05% foizi)
Andoza:Smaller

Katta aholiga ega mintaqalar
Flag of Turkiya Turkiya 58,000,000-61.400.000 [1][2]
Flag of Olmoniya Olmoniya 2,800,000-3.500.000 [3][4]
Flag of Iroq Iroq ca. 500,000-3.000.000 [5]
Flag of Suriya Suriya lesser than 190,000-750.000 [6]
Flag of Bolgariya Bolgariya 750,000-1.000.000 [7][8][9]
Flag of Fransiya Fransiya 500,000 [10][11]
Flag of Birlashgan Qirollik Birlashgan Qirollik 500,000 [12]
Flag of Qoʻshma Shtatlar AQSh 500,000 [13] [14]
Flag of Niderlandlar Niderlandlar 400,000 [15][16][17]
Flag of Eron Eron 400,000 [18]
Andoza:Country data Northern Cyprus 260,000 [19][20]
Flag of Avstriya Avstriya 250,000 [21][22]
Flag of Belgiya Belgiya 200,000 [23][24]
Flag of Avstraliya (davlat) Avstraliya 150,000 [25][26]
Flag of Yunoniston Yunoniston 130,000 [27][28][29]
Flag of Saudiya Arabistoni Saudiya Arabistoni 120,000 [30]
Flag of Shveysariya Shveysariya 100,000 [31]
Flag of Rossiya Rossiya 100,000 [32]
Flag of Makedoniya Respublikasi Makedoniya Respublikasi 80,000 [33]
Flag of Daniya Daniya 70,000 [34][35]
Flag of Shvetsiya Shvetsiya 70,000 [36][37]
Flag of Ozarbayjon Ozarbayjon 50,000 [38]
Flag of Kanada Kanada 50,000 [39][40]
Flag of Ruminiya Ruminiya 44,500 [41]
Flag of Misr Misr 40,000 [42]
Flag of Isroil Isroil 20,000 [43]
Flag of Kosova {{{shortname alias}}} 20,000 [44]
Flag of Norvegiya Norvegiya 15,000 [45]
Flag of Italiya Italiya 14,500 [46]
Flag of Yaponiya Yaponiya 10,000 [47]
Tillar
Turkcha
Dinlar
Islom
Qarindosh etnik guruhlar
boshqa turkiy xalqlar

Turklar — xalq. Turkiyaning asosiy aholisi (50 mln. kishi). Umumiy soni 53,3 mln. kishi (1990-y.lar oʻrtalari). Turk tilida soʻzlashadi. Dindorlari — sunniy musulmonlar. T. antropologik jihatdan jan. yevropeoid irqning Oʻrta dengiz guruhiga mansub. Etnik jihatdan T. 2 asosiy komponent: 11 — 13-a.larda saljuqiylar va moʻgʻullar istilosi davrida Oʻrta Osiyo va Erondan Kichik Osiyoga koʻchib kelgan koʻchmanchi turkchorvador qabilalari (asosan, oʻgʻuzlar va turkmanlar) va mahalliy (Kichik osiyolik) aholidan tarkib topgan. T.ning bir qismi (uzlar va bijanaklar) Bolqon ya.o. orkali Kichik Osiyoga kirib kelgan.

T. mahalliy aholi (greklar, armanlar, gruzinlar va b.) bilan aralashib, ularning bir qismini oʻziga singdirib oldi, ularning xoʻjaligi va madaniyatining juda koʻp belgilarini oʻzlashtirdi. Etnogenezida, shuningdek, arab, kurd, jan. slavyan, rumin, alban va b. elementlar ham qatnashgan. 14— 16-a.larda T. Bolqon ya.o. va Kiprni egallaganlar. Turk xalqi taxm. 15-a.da tarkib topdi. T. tarkibida yarim koʻchmanchi etnografik guruhlar: yuruklar, turkmanlar, taxtajlar, abdallar va b. bor. Yarim koʻchmanchilar oʻtroklashib, T. tarkibiga singib bormoqda. Hoz. T.ning koʻpchiligi (65%) qishloq xoʻjaligi. da (dehkrnchilik va chorvachilik), mln.dan oshiqrogʻi sanoatda band.

Turklar — Kichik Osiyo yarim orolida yashaydigan turkiy millat. Turklarning asosiy qismi Turkiya hududida istiqomat qiladi, shuningdek Olmoniya(2.8 mil3.5 million kishi), Bolgariya(750 ming-1 milion kishi,Niderlandiya(400 ming kishi), Farangiston(500 ming kishi) ,Maqduna(110 ming), Yunoniston(100 ming), Kipr(280.000)

singari oʻlkalarda yashayotgan turklarni uchratish mumkin.

Tili[tahrir]

Turk tili (turkcha) Oltoy tillar oilasining Turkiy tillar boʻlimi Oʻgʻuz guruhiga mansubdir. Zamonaviy Turk tili Gagauz tiliga juda yaqindir. Baz’i qismlari Ozarbaidjoncha, Turkmanchaga ham oʻxshaydi. Turkchaning Arab imlosidagi, Lotin imlosidagi yozuvlarini uchratish mumkin. Mustaqillikdan soʻng hukumat Arab imlosidandan Lotin alifbosiga oʻtishga qaror berdi va hozirgi kunga kelib toʻliq lotinlashtirilgan.

Din[tahrir]

Anʼanviy Turkcha qahva

Arablar kelguniga qadar Turklar Tangritanlik dinlariga sigʻinar edilar. Milodiy 8-asrlardan boshlab turklar Islom dinini qabul qila boshladilar. Ayni paytda Turklar, Islom dinining Sunniylik mazhabidadir.

Manbalar[tahrir]

  1. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook; Turkey. 2008-07-09.
  2. Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Turkey: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1995. Turks
  3. France24. New generation of Turks eyes brighter future in Germany. 2009-2-18.
  4. Deutsche Welle. German Interior Minister Pledges to Improve Turkish Integration. 2009-02-18.
  5. Bill Park (2005). Turkey's Policy Towards Northern Iraq. Taylor & Francis, 36. ISBN 9780415382977. 
  6. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3580.htm
  7. Karpat, Kemal (2002). Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History. Greenwood Publishing Group, 6. ISBN 9789004121010. 
  8. Gulcan, Nilgun (2006-04-16). "Population of Turkish Diaspora". http://www.turkishweekly.net/news.php?id=29895. 
  9. Diplomatic Observer. HISTORY IS WRITTEN BY DIFFERENCES; DIFFERENCES MAKE HISTORY. 2008-07-17.
  10. Hunter, Shireen (2002). Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape. Greenwood Publishing Group, 6. ISBN 978-0275976088. 
  11. Todays ZAMAN. Ankara Continues to Criticize Genocide Bill. 2008-12-18.
  12. Federation of Turkish Associations UK. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE FEDERATION OF TURKISH ASSOCIATIONS IN UK. 2008-12-19.
  13. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Immigration and Ethnicity: Turks. 2008-07-09.
  14. TURKISH SOCIETY OF ROCHESTER, NEW YORK. About Turkish Society of Rochester. 2008-12-19.
  15. CBS StatLine. Population by origin and generation, 1 January. 2008-07-16.
  16. Netherlands Info Services. Dutch Queen Tells Turkey "First Steps Taken" On EU Membership Road. 2008-12-16.
  17. Dutch News. Dutch Turks swindled, AFM to investigate. 2008-12-16.
  18. Global Security. Iranian Ethnic Groups. 2008-10-09.
  19. Nusfus Ayimi. The press statement of Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer on the tentative results of 2006 population and housing census (5 May 2006). 2008-07-09.
  20. Association of Turkish Cypriots Abroad. ATCA news: National census held on 01/05/06 records a population of 264,172. 2008-07-09.
  21. Großer Türkenanteil in Österreich
  22. Guardian. Austria is not a racist country. 2008-12-18.
  23. King Baudouin Foundation. Belgian-Turks A Bridge or a Breach between Turkey and the European Union?. 2008-12-26.
  24. King Baudouin Foundation. Turkish communities and the EU. 2008-12-26.
  25. Sydney Morning Herald. Old foes, new friends. 2008-12-26.
  26. Turkish Embassy AU. Turkish National Day. 2008-12-26.
  27. European Free Aliance. The Ignored Minorites in Greece: WESTERN THRACE TURKS and MACEDONIANS. 2008-12-18.
  28. The Human Rights Watch. Turks Of Western Thrace. 2008-07-09.
  29. Greek — Turkish minorities
  30. Gerald Robbins. Fostering an Islamic Reformation. American Outlook, Spring 2002 issue.
  31. The Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation. Bilateral relations between Switzerland and Turkey. 2008-12-16.
  32. Centre For Russian Studies. 2002 Nationality report. 2008-07-09.
  33. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook; Macedonia. 2008-07-09.
  34. StatBank Denmark. Danmarks Statistik. 2008-07-09.
  35. DR Online. Tyrkisk afstand fra Islamisk Trossamfund. 2009-02-08.
  36. ZAMAN. Erdoğan’s visit to Stockholm and Turkish-Swedish relations. 2008-07-09.
  37. Murat, Sedat (2000). Immigrant Turks and their socio-economic structure in European countries. İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi. 2008-07-09.
  38. The Statistical Committee of the Republic Of Azerbaijan. Population by ethnic groups (based on population census). 2008-07-09.
  39. Canada's National Statistical Agency. Statistics Canada. 2008-07-09.
  40. Turkish Canadian Relations
  41. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook; Romania. 2008-07-09.
  42. Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Afghanistan
  43. "'The fifth most spoken language of the world' Turkish" (Press release). Mirora Translation & Consultancy Co.. http://www.mirora.com/pdf/fifth_greatest_language_turkish.pdf. 
  44. Kosovo in figures 2005. Statistical Office of Kosovo. Provisional Institutions of Self Government (2005). 2008-07-09.
  45. Statistics Norway; Statistik sentralbyra. Population by Norwegian/foreign citizenship and immigrant populations country background (2008). 2008-07-09.
  46. Statistiche Demografiche ISTAT. Resident Population by sex and citizenship (Middle-East Europe). 2009-02-25.
  47. Japonya Türk Toplumu (Turkish Community of Japan) (Turkish). Embassy of Turkey in Japan. 2008-06-11.