Boston

Vikipediya, ochiq ensiklopediya
Shahar
Boston, Massachusetts shtati
Bayroq Gerb
Bayroq Gerb
Mamlakat AQSh
Mavqeʼ shahar
Shtat Massachusetts
County Boston
Koordinatalari 42°21′29″N 71°03′49″W / 42.35806°N 71.06361°W / 42.35806; -71.06361Koordinatalari: 42°21′29″N 71°03′49″W / 42.35806°N 71.06361°W / 42.35806; -71.06361
Mer Thomas M. Menino
Asos solingan 7-sentabr, 1630-yil
Maydoni 232,14 km²
Dengiz sathidan balandligi 22 m
Iqlim tipi Keskin mo`tadil
Rasmiy tili Ingliz
Aholisi 625 087 nafar (2011)
Zichlik 4924 kishi/km²
Telefon kodi 617 va 857
Pochta indekslari 02108–02137, 02163, 02196, 02199, 02201, 02203, 02204, 02205, 02206, 02210, 02211, 02212, 02215, 02217, 02222, 02228, 02241, 02266, 02283, 02284, 02293, 02295, 02297, 02298
Rasmiy sayti http://www.cityofboston.gov/
Boston (AQSh)
Boston, Massachusetts shtati
Boston (Massachusetts)
Boston, Massachusetts shtati

Boston — AQSH ning shim.sharqidagi shahar, Massachusets shtatining maʼmuriy markazi. Yangi Angliyaning asosiy iqgisodiy markazi. AQShning yetakchi sanoatmoliya va madaniyati rivojlangan shaharlaridan. Aholisi 574 ming kishi, shahar atrofi bilan birga 4 mln. (1990- yillar oʻrtalari). AQSH tarixida 1773 yilgi "choy gʻalayoni" bilan mashhur, bu gʻalayon Shim. Amerikadagi mustamlakalarning ozodlik uchun olib borgan urushlari odsidan boʻlgan edi. B. — Atlantika okeani sohilidagi yirik port (yuk ortib tushirish 20 mln. t dan ortiq), xalqaro aeroport bor. Shosse va temir yoʻl tuguni. Muhim sanoat tarmoqlari — mashinasozlik, radioelektronika va priborsozlik, aviadvigatellar, samolyot va raketa qismlari, stanoksozlik va boshqa Kemasozlik, kimyo, rezina, poligrafiya, oziq-ovqat sanoati tarmoqlari ham rivojlangan. Yirik savdo markazi. B.da 18— 19-asrlarda qurilgan meʼmoriy yodgorliklar, untlar (Boston unti, Garvard unti), Amerika fanlar va sanʼat akademiyasi, nafis sanʼat muzeyi bor. Shaharga 1630 yilda asos solingan.[1]

Boston 1772 yili, Boston 1880 yil bilan solishtirish
Xarita 1775 yilfi Britan taktik tuzish xolatini ko`rsatmoqda

Boston Massachusetts shtatining markazi bo`lib, uning eng katta shaharlaridan biridir. [2] Boston AQSHning eng tarixiy shaharlaridandir.

Tarixi[tahrir]

Asosiy maqola: Boston Tarixi

Boston 7 sentyabr, 1630 yil Puritan Angliyalik mustamlakachi tomonidan[3] tashkil topgan. Aloxida holda koloniyalar Province of Massachusetts Bayni 1691 yil birlashtirilmagan davrga qadar ajralgan bo`lgan.

Jog'rofiyasi[tahrir]

Bostonni Osmondan olingan rasmi, Rasm International Space Station (Xalqaro samo xavobekati) (ISS)

Boston juda ham ixcham (qulay) tuzilishga ega. United States Census Bureau, ga ko`ra shahar maydoni 89.6 sqmi — 48.4 sqmi bo`lib, uning (54.0%) quruqlik va 41.2 sqmi (46.0%) suvlikdan tashkil topgan. Boston AQSHning eng zich aholi yashovchi shaharlari ichida uchunchi o`rinni egallaydi. U Nyu York Sity va San Fransisko lardan keyingi o`rinda joylashgan. Paterson, Nyu Jersey ko`plab shaharlar kabi, juda ham zich, ammo katta metropol shahar hududlarning bir qismidir. "Sirli daryo" Charlestovnni Chelsiy va Everettdan ajratib turadi, hamda, Chelsiy Creek va Boston Harbor Sharqiy Bostonni asl Bostondan ajratib turadi.[4] Bostonnig rasmiy cho`qqisi, Logan International Airport tomonidan qilingan hisoblarga ko`ra, 19 ft (5.8 m) ga teng dengiz sathidan.[5] Bostonning eng yuqori nuqtasi Bellevue Hill bo`lib, uning balandligi dengiz sathidan 330 ft baland va eng quyi nuqtasi esa dengiz sathi biln barobar joylashgan.[6] Boston

Qo`shnilari[tahrir]

Boston ba'zan "city of neighborhoods" (qo`shnilar shahri) deb ham ataladi, buning sababi u har taraflama qo`shni shtat va shaharlar orasida joylashganligidadir. Rasmiy ma'lumotlarga ko`ra Boston bilan 21 ta shahar qo`shnilik qiladi.[7] Uning qo`shnilari quyidagilar: Allston/Brighton, Bak Bay, Bay Villaj, Beakon Hill, Charlstavn, Chinatovn/Teri Daha, Dorchester, Davntavn/Moliya Dahasi, Sharqiy Boston, Fenvey/Kenmor, Hayd Park, Jamayka Pleyn, Mattapan, Misshn Hill, Shimoliy qirg'oq, Roslindal, Roksbury, Janubiy Boston, Janubiy qirg'oq, G'arbiy qirg'oq, va G'arbiy Roksbury.

Boston Charles daryosining chap yuqorisidan olingan surat
Boston Universiteti Jon Hankok Student Villaj binosining 26 qavatidan olingan.
Boston tong paytida Logan Xalqaro ayroporti ustidan olingan surat

Ob-havo[tahrir]

Bostonning iqlimi kontinental (o`zgaruvshan) bo`lib, u qandaydir ma'noda O`zbekistonning poytaxti Toshkent ob-havosiga o`xshab ketadi. Uning farqi Boston Atlantika ummoni bo`yidagi shahar bo`lganligi sababli iqlimi yumshoq, namligidadir.

Demografik xolati[tahrir]

Buyuk Boston hududiga kirib kelgan aholi, yillar bo`yicha, 2000.

Andoza:Tarixiy axolilari

Laqchalar[tahrir]

Asosiy maqola: Boston laqchasi

"Boston laqchasi" AQSH da keng parodiya qilinadi va Kennedy oilasi ko`pincha u bilan bog'lanadi, shunga qaramasdan Kennedyning nutqi o`ziga xos bo`lib u Boston Brahmin.[8][9][10] (ga qaralsin) ko`plab shevalardan tashkil topgan. Ular Rhotic va non-rhotic accents|non-rhotic (Masalan, "r" tovushi bo`g'in oxirida kelib, undan keyin unli harf kelsa, u tushirib qoldiriladi) va v h.k.[11] Boston Ingiliz tili ko`plab dialekga oid so`zlarga ega, quyidagilar kabi "frappe", ma'nosi "muzqaymoq bilan siltama sut" (boshqa siltama sutlardan farqli o`laroq).[12] The accent originated in the non-rhotic speech of 17th century East Anglia and Lincolnshire.[13]

Jinoyat[tahrir]

A Boston Police cruiser on Beacon Street

Shaharda 1990-yillar boshida boshlab og'ir jinoyatlar ancha kamaygan. Bostonning jinoyat sodir etish darajasining pasligi u yerda yoshlar bilan ahloqiy, manaviy, ruhiy tarbiyalarning mahalliy politsiya va shtat prokuraturasi bilan hamda cherkov yordamida olib borilganligi natijasidir. Bu esa o`z o`rnida "Boston mo`jizasi" deya maqtalayotgan yo`lga asos bo`ldi. Qotillar soni shaharda 1990 yil 152 tadan 1999 yilda 31 ta ga tushdi va ular orasida voyaga etmaganlar yo`q.[14]

Iqtisod[tahrir]

Distribution of the Boston metropolitan NECTA labor force, 2004 annual averages[15]

$363 milliard AQSH dollarini o`z ichiga olgan, Buyuk Boston metropoliten hudud bo`lib, u YaIM bo`yicha AQSHdagi shaharlar orasida 6-o`rinda, dunyo bo`yicha esa 12-orinda joylashgan.[16]

Sayyohlik[tahrir]

Sayyohlik Boston iqtisodiyotining katta qismini egallaydi. 2004 yili, sayyohlar Bostonda $7.9 millard sarflashgan va shaharni sayyoylar orasida AQSHning eng mashxur 10 talikka kirishiga sabab bo`lgan.[17] Uning shtat markazi bo`lganligi sababli, hamda federal agentliklar, qonunchilik va hukumat ning mahalliy uyi ekanligi shahar iqtisodining yana bir asosiy qismidir.[17] The city is also a major Port of Boston along the United States' East Coast and is also the oldest continuously operated industrial and fishing port in the Western Hemisphere.[18]

Sanoat va korxonalar[tahrir]

Yana uning muhim sanoat tarmoqlaridan biri bu moliyaviy xizmat ko`rsatish bo`lib, yana ham aniqrog'i umuboshqaruv fondlar (mutual funds) va sug'urtadir.[17] Boston-based Fidelity Investments helped popularize the mutual fund in the 1980s and has made Boston one of the top financial cities in the United States. The city is home to the regional headquarters of Bank of America and Sovereign Bank, and it is a center for venture capital firms. State Street Corporation, which specializes in asset management and custody services, is based in the city. A 2008 study ranked Boston among the top 10 cities in the world for a career in finance.[19] Boston is a printing and publishing center — Houghton Mifflin is headquartered within the city, along with Bedford-St. Martin's Press, Beacon Press, and Little, Brown and Company. Pearson PLC publishing units also employ several hundred people in Boston. The city is home to three major convention centers—the Hynes Convention Center in the Back Bay, and the Seaport World Trade Center and Boston Convention and Exhibition Center on the South Boston waterfront.

Madaniyat[tahrir]

Asosiy maqola: Bostonda Madaniyat.
The Old State House was the site of the Boston Massacre.

Boston shares many cultural roots with greater New England, including a dialect of the non-rhotic Eastern New England accent known as Boston English, and a regional cuisine with a large emphasis on seafood, salt, and dairy products. Irish Americans are a major influence on Boston's politics and religious institutions. Boston also has its own collection of neologisms known as Boston slang.[20]

Faneuil Hall, a well-known stop on the Freedom Trail, sometimes called "the Cradle of Liberty" because of its role in the American Revolution[21]

Musiqa[tahrir]

Mumtoz[tahrir]

The city has a number of ornate theatres, including the Cutler Majestic Theatre, Boston Opera House, Citi Performing Arts Center, the Colonial Theater, and the Orpheum Theatre. Renowned performing-arts organizations include the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Boston Ballet, Boston Early Music Festival, Boston Lyric Opera Company, OperaBoston, Boston Baroque, Boston Accompanietta, and the Handel and Haydn Society (one of the oldest choral companies in the United States).[22] The city is also a major center for contemporary classical music, with a number of performing groups, some of which are associated with the city's conservatories and universities. These include Boston Modern Orchestra Project, Boston Musica Viva, Calluthumpian Consort, and Dinosaur Annex. There are also many major annual events such as First Night, which occurs on New Year's Eve, the annual Boston Arts Festival at Christopher Columbus Waterfront Park, Italian summer feasts in the North End honoring Catholic saints, and several events during the Fourth of July period. These events include the week-long Harborfest festivities[23] and a Boston Pops concert accompanied by fireworks on the banks of the Charles River.[24]

Mustaqil yo`nalish[tahrir]

Quincy Market bu Faneuil Hall ning katta qismidir

Boston is also one of the birthplaces of the hardcore punk genre of music. Boston musicians have contributed significantly to this music scene over the years (see also Boston hardcore). Boston neighborhoods were home to one of the leading local third wave ska and ska punk scenes in the 1990s, led by bands such as The Mighty Mighty Bosstones and The Allstonians. The 1980s' hardcore punk-rock compilation This Is Boston, Not L.A. highlights some of the bands that built the genre. Several nightclubs, such as The Channel, Bunnratty's in Allston, and The Rathskeller, were renowned for showcasing both local punk-rock bands and those from farther afield. All of these clubs are closed. Many were razed or converted during recent gentrification.[25]

Tarix[tahrir]

Because of the city's prominent role in the American Revolution, several historic sites relating to that period are preserved as part of the Boston National Historical Park. Many are found along the Freedom Trail, which is marked by a red line of bricks embedded in the ground. The city is also home to several prominent art museums, including the Museum of Fine Arts and the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. In December 2006, the Institute of Contemporary Art moved from its Back Bay location to a new contemporary building designed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro located in the Seaport District. The University of Massachusetts Boston campus on Columbia Point houses the John F. Kennedy Library. The Boston Athenaeum (one of the oldest independent libraries in the United States),[26] Boston Children's Museum, Bull & Finch Pub (whose building is known from the television show Cheers), Museum of Science, and the New England Aquarium are within the city.

Din[tahrir]

Boston has been a noted religious center from its earliest days. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston serves nearly 300 parishes and is based in the Cathedral of the Holy Cross (1875) in the South End, while the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts, with the Cathedral Church of St. Paul (1819) as its episcopal seat, serves just under 200 congregations. Two Protestant faiths are headquartered in Boston: Unitarian Universalism, with its headquarters on Beacon Hill, and the Christian Scientists, headquartered in Back Bay at the Mother Church (1894). The oldest church in Boston is King's Chapel, the city's first Anglican church, founded in 1686 and converted to Unitarianism in 1785. Other notable churches include Christ Church (better known as Old North Church, 1723), the oldest church building in the city, Trinity Church (1733), Park Street Church (1809), First Church in Boston (congregation founded 1630, building raised 1868), Old South Church (1874), Jubilee Christian Church and Basilica and Shrine of Our Lady of Perpetual Help on Mission Hill (1878).[manba kerak]

OAV[tahrir]

Asosiy maqola: Bostonda OAV.

Gazetalar[tahrir]

The Boston Globe and the Boston Herald are two of Boston's major daily newspapers. The city is also served by other publications such as The Boston Phoenix, Boston magazine, The Improper Bostonian, Boston's Weekly Dig, and the Boston edition of Metro. The Christian Science Monitor, headquartered in Boston, was formerly a worldwide daily newspaper but ended publication of daily print editions in 2009, switching to continuous online and weekly magazine format publications.[27] The Boston Globe also releases a teen publication to the city's public high schools. The newspaper Teens in Print or Boston P. is written by the city's teens and delivered quarterly within the school year.[28]

Radio[tahrir]

Boston has the largest broadcasting market in New England, with the Boston radio market being the eleventh largest in the United States.[29] Several major AM stations include talk radio WRKO 680 AM, sports/talk station WEEI 850 AM, and news radio WBZ 1030 AM. A variety of FM radio formats serve the area, as do NPR stations WBUR and WGBH. College and university radio stations include WERS (Emerson), WHRB (Harvard), WUMB (UMass Boston), WMBR (M.I.T.), WZBC (Boston College), WMFO (Tufts University), WBRS (Brandeis University), WTBU (Boston University, campus and web only), WRBB (Northeastern University) and WMLN (Curry College).

Oynayijahon[tahrir]

The Boston television DMA, which also includes Manchester, New Hampshire, is the seventh largest in the United States.[30] The city is served by stations representing every major American network, including WBZ 4 and its sister station WSBK 38 (the former with CBS, the latter an MY network TV affilate), WCVB 5 (ABC), WHDH 7 (NBC), WFXT 25 (Fox), WUNI 27 (Univision), WBIN 50 (Independent), and WLVI 56 (The CW). Boston is also home to PBS station WGBH 2, a major producer of PBS programs, which also operates WGBX 44. Most Boston television stations have their transmitters in nearby Needham and Newton along the Route 128 corridor.[31] Both WCVB and WMUR's .2 stations carry ME Tv, WLVI's .2 carries the Country Network, WBIN's .2 carries Living Well Network. Additionally WNEU 60 Merrimack NH carries Telemundo; WMFP 62 Lawrence MA carries PLUM TV, WUTF 66 Marlborough carries Telefutura and WFXZ-CA 24 Boston carries Mundo Fox.

Sport[tahrir]

Asosiy maqola: Bostonda sport.

Boston has teams in the four major North American professional sports leagues, and has won 33 championships in these leagues, as of 2011. It has been suggested.[32][33][34] that Boston is the new "TitleTown, USA", as the city's professional sports teams have won seven championships since 2002: Patriots (2002, 2004, & 2005), Red Sox (2004 & 2007), Celtics (2008), and Bruins (2011).

Boston Red Sox jamoasi[tahrir]

The Boston Red Sox, a founding member of the American League of Major League Baseball in 1901, play their home games at Fenway Park, near Kenmore Square in the Fenway section of Boston. Built in 1912, it is the oldest sports arena or stadium in active use in the United States among the four major professional American sports leagues, encompassing Major League Baseball, the National Football League, National Basketball Association, and the National Hockey League.[35] Boston was also the site of the first game of the first modern World Series, in 1903. The series was played between the AL Champion Boston Americans and the NL champion Pittsburgh Pirates.[36][37] Persistent reports that the team was known in 1903 as the "Boston Pilgrims" appear to be unfounded.[38] Boston's first professional baseball team was the Red Stockings, one of the charter members of the National Association in 1871, and of the National League in 1876. The team played under that name until 1883, under the name Beaneaters until 1911, and under the name Braves from 1912 until they moved to Milwaukee after the 1952 season. Since 1966 they have played in Atlanta as the Atlanta Braves.[39]

TD Garden dagi Jamoalar[tahrir]

Boston Celtics in a game at the TD Garden

The TD Garden formerly called the FleetCenter and originally called the Boston Garden is adjoined to North Station and is the home of three major league teams: the Boston Blazers of the National Lacrosse League, the 2011 Stanley Cup champion Boston Bruins of the National Hockey League; and the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association. The arena seats 18,624 for basketball games and 17,565 for ice hockey games. The Bruins were the first American member of the National Hockey League and an Original Six franchise.[40] The Boston Celtics were founding members of the Basketball Association of America, one of the two leagues that merged to form the NBA.[41] The Celtics have the distinction of having won more championships than any other NBA team, with seventeen.[42]

New England Patriots jamoasi[tahrir]

While they have played in suburban Foxborough since 1971, the New England Patriots were founded in 1960 as the Boston Patriots, changing their name in 1971 to better reflect its status as New England's team. A charter member of the American Football League, the team joined the National Football League in 1970. The team has won the Super Bowl three times, in 2001, 2003, and 2004.[43] They share Gillette Stadium with the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer. The Boston Breakers of Women's Professional Soccer, which formed in 2009, play their home games at Harvard Stadium in Allston.[44]

Gillette Stadium

Kollejlarida sport[tahrir]

Boston's many colleges and universities are active in college athletics. Four NCAA Division I members play their games in the city—Boston College (Atlantic Coast Conference), Boston University (America East Conference), Harvard University (Ivy League), and Northeastern University (Colonial Athletic Association). Of the four, only Boston College participates in college football at the highest level, the Football Bowl Subdivision. Harvard participates in the second-highest level, the Football Championship Subdivision. Boston University and Northeastern University do not have football teams. All but Harvard belong to the Hockey East conference; Harvard belongs to the ECAC in hockey. The hockey teams of these four universities meet every year in a four-team tournament known as the "Beanpot Tournament", which is played at the TD Garden over two Monday nights in February.[45]

Boston Marafoni[tahrir]

One of the best known sporting events in the city is the Boston Marathon, the Andoza:Convert/LoffAoffDbSon run from Hopkinton to Copley Square in the Back Bay which is the world's oldest annual marathon run.[46] It is run on Patriots' Day in April and always coincides with a Red Sox home baseball game that starts at 11:05 am, the only MLB game all year to start before noon local time.[47] Another major event held annually in the city is the Head of the Charles Regatta rowing competition on the Charles River.[48]

Mahalliy klublar[tahrir]

There are many local clubs and groups, such as the Boston Ski and Sports Club, which offer team sports leagues in basketball, ultimate Frisbee, dodgeball, football, tennis, volleyball, golf, and other indoor and outdoor sports.[49]

Klub Ligiya Sport Vina Tashkil topgan Chempiyonatlar
Boston Bruins NHL Hockey TD Garden 1924 6 Stanley Cups
Boston Celtics NBA Basketball TD Garden 1946 17 NBA Titles
Boston Red Sox MLB Baseball Fenway Park 1901 7 World Series Titles
12 AL Pennants
New England Patriots NFL Football Gillette Stadium 1960 3 Super Bowl Titles
7 AFC Championships
New England Revolution MLS Soccer Gillette Stadium 1995 1 U.S. Open Cup
1 Superliga
Boston Blazers NLL Lacrosse (Indoor) TD Garden 2008 None
Boston Breakers WPS Soccer Harvard Stadium 2001 None
Boston Cannons MLL Lacrosse (Outdoor) Harvard Stadium 2001 1 Steinfeld Cup
Boston Aztec WPSL Soccer Amesbury Sports Park 2005 1 WPSL Title
Boston Thirteens AMNRL Rugby League (Usually known as League) Steinbrenner Stadium 2009 0 Premierships (runners up 2012)
Boston Militia WFA Football Dilboy Stadium 2008 2 Championships
New England Riptide NPF Softball Martin Softball Field 2004 1 Cowles Cup

Hukumat[tahrir]

Thomas M. Menino, Boston Mayori
Massachusetts shtat binosi, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. tomonidan 1858 yilda olingan, collection of essays as "the Hub of the Solar System"[50]

Shahar konsulligi[tahrir]

Boston has a strong mayor – council government system in which the mayor is vested with extensive executive powers. The mayor is elected to a four-year term by plurality voting. The mayor of Boston is Thomas Menino. He was elected in 1993 and was reelected in 2009 for a fifth term, the longest in Boston history. Boston City Council is elected every two years. There are nine district seats, each elected by the residents of that district through plurality voting, and four at-large seats. Each voter casts up to four votes for at-large councilors, with no more than one vote per candidate. The candidates with the four highest vote totals are elected. The president of the city council is elected by the councilors from within themselves. The school committee for the Boston Public Schools is appointed by the mayor.[51] The Boston Redevelopment Authority and the Zoning Board of Appeals (a seven-person body appointed by the mayor) share responsibility for land-use planning.[52]

Boston City Hall

Shtat qo`mitasi[tahrir]

In addition to city government, numerous commissions and state authorities—including the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, the Boston Public Health Commission, and the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport)—play a role in the life of Bostonians. As the capital of Massachusetts, Boston plays a major role in state politics. The city has several properties relating to the United States federal government, including the John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building and the Thomas P. O'Neill Federal Building.[53] Boston also serves as the home of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit and of the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts; Boston is the headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (the First District of the Federal Reserve).

Kongresdai vakillik[tahrir]

Federally, Boston is part of Massachusetts's 7th and 8th congressional districts,[54] represented respectively by Mike Capuano, first elected in 1998, and Stephen Lynch, first elected in 2001; both are Democrats. The state's senior member of the United States Senate is Democrat John Kerry, first elected in 1984. The state's junior member of the United States Senate is Democrat Elizabeth Warren, first elected in 2012.

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of October 15, 2008[55]
Party Number of Voters Percentage

Andoza:American politics/party colors/Democratic/row

Democratic 209,710 55.04%

Andoza:American politics/party colors/Republican/row

Republican 27,541 7.23%

Andoza:American politics/party colors/Independent/row

Unaffiliated 140,601 36.90%

Andoza:American politics/party colors/Libertarian/row

Minor Parties 3,161 0.83%
Total 381,013 100%

Ta'lim[tahrir]

Map of colleges and universities within Boston's Inner Core

Oliy ta'lim[tahrir]

Boston's reputation as a higher education center derives in large part from the teaching and research activities of more than 100 colleges and universities located in the Greater Boston Area, with more than 250,000 students attending college in Boston and Cambridge alone.[56] Within the city, Boston University exudes a large presence as the city's fourth-largest employer,[57] and maintains a campus along the Charles River on Commonwealth Avenue and its medical campus in the South End. Northeastern University, another large private university, is located in the Fenway area, and is particularly known for its Engineering, Business and Health Science schools and cooperative education program. Suffolk University, the third largest university in Boston, is located in the Beacon Hill area, and is known for its law school and business school.[58][59] Boston College, a private Catholic Jesuit university, whose original campus was located in the South End, straddles the Boston (Brighton)-Newton border, with planned expansions further into Brighton.[60] Boston's only public university is the University of Massachusetts Boston, located on Columbia Point in Dorchester. Roxbury Community College and Bunker Hill Community College are the city's two public community colleges.

Shaxsiy Kollejlar[tahrir]

Boston has several smaller private colleges and universities. Emmanuel College, Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Simmons College, Wheelock College, and Wentworth Institute of Technology are founding members of the Colleges of the Fenway and are located adjacent to Northeastern University. New England School of Law, a small private law school located in the theater district, was originally established as America's first all female law school.[61] Emerson College, a small private college with a strong reputation in the fields of performing arts, journalism, writing, and film, is located near Boston Common.

San'at maktablari[tahrir]

Boston is also home to several conservatories and art schools, including The Art Institute of Boston (Lesley University), Massachusetts College of Art, New England Institute of Art, New England School of Art and Design (Suffolk University), and the New England Conservatory (the oldest independent conservatory in the United States).[62] Other conservatories include the Boston Conservatory, the School of the Museum of Fine Arts and Berklee College of Music.

Greater Boston dagi boshqa ta'lim muassasalari[tahrir]

Several universities located outside Boston have a major presence in the city. Harvard University, the nation's oldest, is located across the Charles River in Cambridge. Its business and medical schools are in Boston, and there are plans for additional expansion into Boston's Allston neighborhood.[63] The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), which originated in Boston and was long known as "Boston Tech", moved across the river to Cambridge in 1916. Tufts University administers its medical and dental school adjacent to the Tufts Medical Center, a 451-bed academic medical institution that is home to both a full-service hospital for adults and the Floating Hospital for Children. Tufts' main campus, including the renowned Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, is located just north of the city in Somerville and Medford.

Bostondagi davlat maktablari[tahrir]

Boston Public Schools, the oldest public school system in the U.S., enrolls 57,000 students from pre-kindergarten to grade 12.[64] The system operates 145 schools, which includes Boston Latin School (the oldest public high school in the United States, established in 1635) which, along with Boston Latin Academy and John D. O'Bryant School of Math & Science, are highly prestigious public exam schools admitting students in the 7th and 9th grades only and serving grades 7–12), English High (the second oldest public high school, established 1821), and the Mather School (the oldest public elementary school, established in 1639).[64] In 2002, Forbes Magazine ranked the Boston Public Schools as the best large city school system in the country, with a graduation rate of 82%.[65] In 2005, the student population within the school system was 45.5% Black or African American, 31.2% Hispanic or Latino, 14% White, and 9% Asian, as compared with 24%, 14%, 49%, and 8% respectively for the city as a whole.[66][67] The city also has private, parochial, and charter schools and approximately 3000 students of racial minorities attend participating suburban schools through the Metropolitan Educational Opportunity Council, or METCO.

Sog'liqni saqlash[tahrir]

The Longwood Medical and Academic Area is a region of Boston with a concentration of medical and research facilities, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Children's Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences.[68] Massachusetts General Hospital is near the Beacon Hill neighborhood, with the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital nearby. St. Elizabeth's Medical Center is in Brighton Center of Boston's Brighton neighborhood. New England Baptist Hospital is in Mission Hill. Boston has Veterans Affairs medical centers in the Jamaica Plain and West Roxbury neighborhoods.[69] The Boston Public Health Commission, an agency of the Massachusetts government, oversees health concerns for Boston residents.[70]

Menino Pavilion of Boston Medical Center

Many of Boston's medical facilities are associated with universities. The facilities in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area and in Massachusetts General Hospital are well-known research medical centers affiliated with Harvard Medical School.[71] Tufts Medical Center (formerly Tufts-New England Medical Center), located in the southern portion of the Chinatown neighborhood, is affiliated with Tufts University School of Medicine. Boston Medical Center, located in the South End neighborhood, is the primary teaching facility for the Boston University School of Medicine as well as the largest trauma center in the Boston area;[72] it was formed by the merger of Boston University Hospital and Boston City Hospital, which was the first municipal hospital in the United States.[73]

Utilities[tahrir]

The Quabbin Reservoir is the largest body of water in Massachusetts and is one of the primary water supplies for Boston.

Water supply and sewage-disposal services are provided by the Boston Water and Sewer Commission.[74] The Commission in turn purchases wholesale water and sewage disposal from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. The city's water comes from the Quabbin Reservoir and the Wachusett Reservoir, which are about Andoza:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff and Andoza:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff west of the city respectively.[75] Boston's tap water has been ranked among the best in the country,[76] and Boston is one of five cities in the country with tap water pure enough to be exempt from Environmental Protection Agency filtration requirements.[77] NSTAR is the exclusive electricity distributor to the city, though due to deregulation, customers have a choice of electric generation companies. Natural gas is distributed by National Grid plc (originally KeySpan, the successor company to Boston Gas); only commercial and industrial customers may choose an alternate natural gas supplier.[78] Municipal steam services are provided by Veolia Energy North America and its subsidiary Trigen Energy Corporation;[79][80] which comprise the original assets of the defunct Boston Heating Company.[81][82]

Verizon, successor to New England Telephone, NYNEX, Bell Atlantic, and earlier, the Bell System, is the primary wired telephone service provider for the area. Phone service is also available from various national wireless companies. Cable television is available from Comcast and RCN, with broadband Internet access provided by the same companies in certain areas. A variety of DSL providers and resellers are able to provide broadband Internet over Verizon-owned phone lines.[83] Galaxy Internet Services (GIS) has also moved to the forefront to deploy municipal Wi-Fi broadband Internet throughout areas of the city of Boston.[84]

Transport[tahrir]

Asosiy maqola: Bostondagi transport vositalari.

Havo yo`llari[tahrir]

Logan International Airport, located in the East Boston neighborhood, handles most of the scheduled passenger service for Boston.[85] Surrounding the city are three major general aviation relievers: Beverly Municipal Airport to the north, Hanscom Field in Bedford, to the west, and Norwood Memorial Airport to the south. T. F. Green Airport serving Providence, Rhode Island, and Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester, New Hampshire, also provide scheduled passenger service to the Boston area.

Grid tekkislik[tahrir]

Many of Boston's roads were based upon horse and cart paths from the 17th century. A few horse carriages are still found in Boston today, transporting tourists around the city.

Downtown Boston's streets were not organized on a grid, but grew in a meandering organic pattern from early in the 17th century. They were created as needed, and as wharves and landfill expanded the area of the small Boston peninsula.[86] Along with several rotaries, roads change names and lose and add lanes seemingly at random. By contrast, streets in the Back Bay, East Boston, the South End, and South Boston do follow a grid system.

Turnpike va asosiy trassalar[tahrir]

Boston is the eastern terminus of cross-continent I-90, which in Massachusetts runs along the Massachusetts Turnpike. Originally known as the Circumferential Highway, Route 128 carries I-95 over a portion of its route west and north of the city. U.S. 1 and I-93 run concurrently north to south through the city from Charlestown to Dorchester, joined by Massachusetts Route 3 after the Zakim Bridge over the Charles River. The elevated portion of the Central Artery, which carried these routes through downtown Boston, was replaced with the O'Neill Tunnel during the Big Dig, substantially completed in early 2006.

An MBTA Red Line train going over the Longfellow Bridge

Jamoat transporti[tahrir]

Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority[tahrir]

With nearly a third of Bostonians using public transit for their commute to work, Boston has the fifth-highest rate of public transit usage in the country.[87] The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) operates what was the first underground rapid transit system in the United States and is the fourth busiest rapid transit system in the country,[88] having been expanded to Andoza:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff of track,[89] reaching as far north as Malden, as far south as Braintree, and as far west as Newton—collectively known as the "T". The MBTA also operates the nation's seventh busiest bus network, as well as water shuttles, and the nation's busiest commuter rail network outside of New York City or Chicago, totaling over Andoza:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff,[89] extending north to the Merrimack Valley, west to Worcester, and south to Providence and North Kingstown, Rhode Island. The MBTA lines are color coded as orange, green, red, blue, silver and purple.

Amtrak[tahrir]

South Station is the largest train station and intercity bus terminal in Greater Boston and serves as a major intermodal transportation hub.

Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and Chicago lines originate at South Station and stop at Back Bay. Fast Northeast Corridor trains, which serve New York City, Washington, D.C., and points in between, also stop at Route 128 Station in the southwestern suburbs of Boston.[90] Meanwhile, Amtrak's Downeaster service to Maine originates at North Station.[91]

Pedestrian commuters[tahrir]

Nicknamed "The Walking City", Boston hosts more pedestrian commuters than do other comparably populated cities. Owing to factors such as the compactness of the city and large student population, 13% of the population commutes by foot, making it the highest percentage of pedestrian commuters in the country out of the major American cities.[92] In 2011, Walk Score ranked Boston the third most walkable city in the United States.[93][94]

Bicycle commuters and programs[tahrir]

Between 1999 and 2006, Bicycling magazine named Boston as one of the worst cities in the U.S. for cycling three times;[95] regardless, it has one of the highest rates of bicycle commuting.[96] In September 2007, Mayor Menino started a bicycle program called Boston Bikes with a goal of improving bicycling conditions by adding bike lanes, racks, and offering bikeshare programs. In 2008, as a consequence the same magazine put Boston on its list of its "Five for the Future" list as a "Future Best City" for biking,[97][98] and Boston's bicycle commuting percentage increased from 1% in 2000 to 2.1% in 2009.[99] The bikeshare program, called Hubway, launched in late July 2011,[100] logging more than 140,000 rides before the close of its first season.[101] In tandem with the program, police announced intention to step up enforcement of traffic laws, both on drivers and bikers,[102] as part of an effort to improve safety and ameliorate the city's growing clash between bikers and motorists.[103][104][105] The neighboring cities of Cambridge, Somerville, and Brookline all intend to sign on to the Hubway program for launch in summer 2012.[106]

Kichik shaharchalari[tahrir]

Asosiy maqola: Bostonning kichik shaharchalari.

Boston has eight official sister cities as recognized by Sister Cities International.[107] The date column indicates the year in which the relationship was established. Kyoto was Boston's first sister city.

City Country Date References
Kyoto  Japan 1959 [108]
Strasbourg  France 1960 [109][110]
Barcelona  Spain 1980 [111][112]
Hangzhou Xitoy People's Republic of China 1982 [107]
Padua  Italy 1983 [113]
Melbourne  Australia 1985

[114]

Taipei Andoza:Country data ROC Republic of China (Taiwan) 1996 [115]
Sekondi-Takoradi Gana Ghana 2001 [107]

Boston also has less formal friendship or partnership relationships with an additional three cities.

City Country Date References
Boston Birlashgan Qirollik United Kingdom 1999 [116][117]
Haifa Isroil Israel 1999 [118]
Valladolid Ispaniya Spain 2007 [119]

Qo`shimcha ko`rish uchun[tahrir]

Portal Vikipediyada Geography portali bor.

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Havolalar[tahrir]

O`qish uchun[tahrir]

  • Boston: A to Z (2000), Thomas H. O'Connor, ISBN 0-674-00310-1
  • Built in Boston: City and Suburb, 1800–2000 (2000), Douglass Shand-Tucci, ISBN 1-55849-201-1
  • Lost Boston (1999), Mariner Books, ISBN 0-395-96610-8
  • Boston: A Topographical History, Third Enlarged Edition (2000), Belknap Press, ISBN 0-674-00268-7
  • When in Boston: A Time Line & Almanac (2004), Northeastern, ISBN 1-55553-620-4
  • Gaining Ground: A History of Landmaking in Boston (2003), Nancy S. Seasholes, ISBN 0-262-19494-5
  • Boston's Secret Spaces: 50 Hidden Corners In and Around the Hub, (2009), Globe Pequot; First edition ISBN 0-7627-5062-6
  • AIA Guide to Boston, 3rd Edition: Contemporary Landmarks, Urban Design, Parks, Historic Buildings and Neighborhoods, (2008), Michael Southworth and Susan Southworth, GPP Travel, ISBN 0-7627-4337-9
  • Boston: A Pictorial Celebration (2006), Jonathan M. Beagle, Elan Penn (photographer), ISBN 1-4027-1977-9
  • City in Time: Boston (2008), Jeffrey Hantover, Gilbert King (photographer), ISBN 1-4027-3300-3
  • Mapping Boston (2001), Alex Krieger (editor), David Cobb (editor), Amy Turner (editor), Norman B. Leventhal (Foreword by) MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-61173-2
  • Boston Beheld: Antique Town and Country Views (2008), D. Brenton Simons, University Press of New England, ISBN 1-58465-740-5
  • Boston (2010) by Jordan Worek; photographs by Bill Horsman, Firefly Books, ISBN 1-55407-591-2
  • Boston's immigrants, 1840–1925 (2000), by Michael Price, Anthony Mitchell Sammarco, Arcadia Publishing, Images of America series
  • Boston: A Century of Progress (1995), by Anthony Mitchell Sammarco, Arcadia Publishing, Images of America series

Tashqi havolalar[tahrir]

Andoza:BostonMA Andoza:Boston neighborhoods Andoza:Suffolk County, Massachusetts Andoza:Greater Boston Andoza:Massachusetts Andoza:Northeast Megalopolis Andoza:New England Andoza:US state capitals Andoza:USLargestCities Andoza:USLargestMetros Andoza:All-American City Award Hall of Fame Andoza:Massachusetts cities and mayors of 100,000 population

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Manbalar[tahrir]