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GrassMaster

Vikipediya, ochiq ensiklopediya

  GrassMaster — sunʼiy tolalar bilan birlashtirilgan tabiiy oʻtlardan tashkil topgan gibrid oʻt sport oʻyinlaridagi maydoni yuzasi. Bunday usul 1993-yilda Niderlandiyadagi Desso Sports tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan va patentlangan. Ushbu gibrid oʻt tizimi endi Desso Sportsni qoʻlga kiritgandan soʻng Tarkett Sports tomonidan sotiladi va yanada rivojlantiriladi va GrassMaster sifatida rebrendinglashtirilgan.

Texnologiya[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

GrassMaster 20 million polipropilen (PP) tolalarni butun oʻyin maydoniga teng ravishda taqsimlangan tuproqqa vertikal ravishda kiritish orqali tabiiy oʻt maydoni ildizini mustahkamlaydi. 20 cm (7.9 in) uzun PP tolalari kompyuter tomonidan boshqariladigan mashinalar tomonidan ekib chiqiladi, 18 cm (7.1 in) chuqur shunday 2 cm (0.8 in) sirt ustida qoladi[1]. PP tolalari taxminan 2 cm × 2 cm (0.8 in × 0.8 in) boʻlgan panjara ichiga kiritiladi. Oʻt ildizlari tolalar bilan oʻralashib, chuqurroq va kengroq tuproq ichida oʻsadi[2]. Sirt ustidagi PP tolalari tekis va barqaror sirtni taʼminlash uchun moʻljallangan. GrassMaster ekishdan oldin yoki ekishdan keyin oʻtlariga oʻrnatilishi mumkin[3].

Asosiy oʻrnatilgan maydonlar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Stadion Klub Sport Mamlakat
Ashton Gate Stadium Bristol City and Bristol Bears Association football va rugby union Angliya
Villa Park Aston Villa F.C. Futbol Angliya
St James’ Park Newcastle United Futbol Angliya
Elland Road Leeds United F.C. Futbol Angliya
Hillsborough[4][5] Sheffield Wednesday Futbol Angliya
Camp Nou FC Barcelona Futbol Ispaniya
Luminus Arena KRC Genk Futbol Belgiya
San Siro Inter Milan va A.C. Milan Futbol Italiya
Stade Marcel Picot AS Nancy Futbol Fransiya
King Abdullah Sports City Ittihad FC and Al-Ahli Saudi FC Futbol Saudiya Arabistoni
Mapei Stadium US Sassuolo Calcio Futbol Italiya
Goodison Park Everton FC Futbol Angliya
Stade Marcel-Michelin ASM Clermont Auvergne Rugby union Fransiya
CNFE Clairefontaine French Football Federation Futbol Fransiya
Anfield Liverpool F.C. Futbol Angliya
Selhurst Park Crystal Palace Futbol Angliya
Carrow Road Norwich City Futbol Angliya
Parc des Princes Paris Saint-Germain FC Futbol Fransiya
Stade de Roudourou En Avant Guingamp Futbol Fransiya
Stade Louis II AS Monaco Futbol Monako
Stade Océane Le Havre AC Futbol Fransiya
Stade de France[6] France Futbol va boshqa tadbirlar Fransiya
Stade Francis-Le Blé Stade Brestois 29 Futbol Fransiya
Stade Auguste-Delaune Stade de Reims Futbol Fransiya
Estádio Parque São Jorge Corinthians Futbol Braziliya
Neo Química Arena Corinthians Futbol Braziliya
Arena do Grêmio[7] Grêmio Futbol Braziliya
King Power Stadium[8] Leicester City F.C. Futbol Angliya
Twickenham Stadium Rugby Football Union Rugby union Angliya
Emirates Stadium[9] Arsenal F.C. Futbol Angliya
Kirklees Stadium Huddersfield Town and

Huddersfield Giants

Futbol va

rugby league

Angliya
Ibrox Stadium Rangers F.C. Futbol Shotlandiya
Celtic Park Celtic Futbol Shotlandiya
Leigh Sports Village Leigh[10] Rugby league Angliya
City of Manchester Stadium Manchester City[11] Futbol Angliya
Old Trafford[12] Manchester United F.C. Futbol Angliya
Trafford Training Centre[13] Manchester United F.C. Futbol Angliya
Adams Park Wycombe Wanderers(and formerly Wasps) Association football(va formerly rugby union) Angliya
Vicarage Road[14] Watford(and formerly Saracens) Association football(va formerly rugby union) Angliya
Wembley Stadium[15] England Futbol va boshqa tadbirlar Angliya
Aviva Stadium Ireland national rugby union team and

Republic of Ireland national football team

Rugby union and

association football

Irlandiya
Stadion Galgenwaard Utrecht Futbol Niderlandiya
Euroborg FC Groningen Futbol Niderlandiya
AFAS Stadion AZ Alkmaar Futbol Niderlandiya
Sportpark De Toekomst AFC Ajax Futbol Niderlandiya
Forsyth Barr Stadium[16] Highlanders Rugby union Yangi Zelandiya
Lerkendal Stadion Rosenborg Futbol Norvegiya
Arena Khimki Khimki Futbol Rossiya
Mbombela Stadium 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa Futbol Janubiy Afrika
Peter Mokaba Stadium 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa Futbol Janubiy Afrika
Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa and

South Africa Sevens

Association football and

rugby sevens

Janubiy Afrika
Lincoln Financial Field Philadelphia Eagles Futbol United States
Lambeau Field Green Bay Packers Futbol United States
Liberty Stadium[17] Swansea City and

Ospreys

Association football and

rugby union

Uels
Millennium Stadium[18] Welsh Rugby Union Rugby union(also Welsh international association football) Uels
Cardiff City Stadium[19] Cardiff City(and formerly Cardiff Blues) Association football(and formerly rugby union) Uels
National Stadium, Singapore Singapore national football team Rugby union and association football Singapur
Rodney Parade DragonsNewport CountyNewport RFC Rugby union and association football Uels
Volkswagen Arena VfL Wolfsburg Futbol Germaniya
Metalist Stadium Metalist Kharkiv Futbol Ukraina
Donbass Arena FC Shakhtar Donetsk Futbol Ukraina
Central City Stadium National Team of Kazakhstan Futbol Qozogʻiston
Murrayfield Edinburgh Rugby and

Scotland

Rugby union Shotlandiya
Stadio Marc'Antonio Bentegodi Hellas Verona and Chievo Verona Futbol Italiya
Lokomotiv Stadium FC Lokomotiv Moscow Futbol Rossiya
Kazan Arena FC Rubin Kazan Futbol Rossiya
Estadio de la Cerámica Villareal CF Futbol Ispaniya
Melbourne City Football Academy Melbourne City FC Futbol Avstraliya
Ooredoo Training Centre Paris Saint-Germain FC Futbol Fransiya
St Georges Park National Football Centre FA Futbol Angliya
Bramall Lane[20] Sheffield United Futbol Angliya
Imam Reza Stadium Padideh F.C. Futbol Eron
Cairo International Stadium Egyptian national football team Futbol Misr
El Sekka El Hadid Stadium El Sekka El Hadid SC Futbol Misr
New Administrative Capital Stadium TBD Futbol Misr
Vodafone Park Beşiktaş J.K. Futbol Turkiya
Bashundhara Kings Arena Bashundhara Kings Futbol Bangladesh
Darius and Girėnas Stadium FK Kauno Žalgiris Futbol Litva

 

Maʼlumotnomalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  1. Oldenkotte. „Hybrid fields discussed - By Guy Oldenkotte“ (2020-yil 2-sentyabr). Qaraldi: 2022-yil 9-dekabr.
  2. Anderson, F. D.; Fleming, P.; Sherratt, P.; Severn, K. (1 January 2016). "Design and Development of a Novel Natural Turf Shear Stability Tester" (en). Procedia Engineering 147: 842–847. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.293. ISSN 1877-7058. 
  3. „Home - GrassMaster Solutions“. grassmastersolutions.com.
  4. „Sheffield Wednesday: Work continues on Desso pitch“. Qaraldi: 2019-yil 23-aprel.
  5. „VIDEO: Sheffield Wednesday on track with new state-of-the-art pitch“. 2019-yil 23-aprelda asl nusxadan arxivlangan. Qaraldi: 2019-yil 23-aprel.
  6. „Le Stade de France choisit Tarkett Sports et sa technologie Desso GrassMaster“. dessosports. 2016-yil 10-avgustda asl nusxadan arxivlangan.
  7. „High-tech hybrid grass for Grêmio Arena“. GFPA. 2013-yil 6-iyunda asl nusxadan arxivlangan.
  8. „Pitch Refurbishment Underway“. LCFC. 2011-yil 30-mayda asl nusxadan arxivlangan.
  9. „How Arsenal have put Wembley in the shade“. The Times.
  10. „LSV beats the big freeze!“. 2011-yil 19-avgustda asl nusxadan arxivlangan. Qaraldi: 2010-yil 21-dekabr.
  11. „Manchester City inaugurates brand new stadium“. Qaraldi: 2007-yil 17-may.
  12. Parsons, Tom. „Pitch battle prompts Manchester United to switch to new surface“. Inside World Football (2013-yil 5-iyun). 2014-yil 7-aprelda asl nusxadan arxivlangan. Qaraldi: 2014-yil 7-iyun.
  13. „Louis van Gaal: New Manchester United manager orders club to rip up training ground pitches before his arrival“. The Independent (2014-yil 7-iyun). Qaraldi: 2014-yil 7-iyun.
  14. „Pitch relay news Desso is go“. WatfordFC.com. 2012-yil 12-iyulda asl nusxadan arxivlangan. Qaraldi: 2012-yil 11-iyul.
  15. „The Wembley pitch“. FATV.
  16. „Dunedin's hi-tech stadium open for business“. tvnz.
  17. „Liberty Stadium Pitch - Official Stadium Website“. 2011-yil 9-avgustda asl nusxadan arxivlangan. Qaraldi: 2009-yil 29-may.
  18. „Millennium Stadium to have new hybrid playing surface“. BBC Sport (2014-yil 23-may).
  19. „Cardiff City Stadium, Home of Cardiff City FC“. cardiffcitystadium.co.uk.
  20. „A new pitch for the Blades“. Qaraldi: 2019-yil 29-aprel.

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