Syzygium aromaticum

Vikipediya, ochiq ensiklopediya
Qalampirmunchoq
Syzygium aromaticum - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-030.jpg
Ilmiy tasniflash
O‘simliklar
Yuksak oʻsimliklar
Gulli oʻsimliklar
Ikki urugʻpallalilar
Rosids
Myrtales
Mirtadoshlar
Syzygium
S. aromaticum
Binar nomi
Syzygium aromaticum

Sinonimlar
  • Caryophyllus aromaticus L.
  • Eugenia aromatica (L.) Baill.
  • Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.
  • Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S.G.Harrison
  • Jambosa caryophyllus (Thunb.) Nied.

Syzygium aromaticum- Mirtadoshlar, oilasiga mansub gulli o'simlik. Vatani Indoneziyadagi Maluku orollari (yoki Molukkas), odatda tish pastasi, sovun, kosmetika vositasi, ziravor, xushbo'y hid beruvchi sifatida ishlatiladi[1][2][3].

Etimologiya[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Clove so'zi lotincha clavus "tirnoq" so'zidan kelib chiqqan[4].

Botanik xususiyatlari[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Qalampirmunchoq bo‘yi 8-12 metrgacha o'sadigan doimiy yashil daraxt, barglari katta. Gullari qizil rangda, to‘pgullarda ochiladi. Gul kurtaklari dastlab och rangga ega bo'lib, asta-sekin yashil rangga aylanadi, so'ngra hosilga tayyor bo'lganda yorqin qizil rangga kiradi. Qalampirmunchoq kurtaklari uzunligi 1,5-2 sm ga yetganda yig‘ib olinadi.

Foydalanadi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Quritilgan qalampirmunchoq
Qalampirmunchoq daraxti gul kurtaklari

Qalampirmunchoq Osiyo, Afrika, O'rta yer dengizi, Yaqin va O'rta Sharq mamlakatlari oshxonasida go'sht (pishirilgan jambon kabi), kori va marinadlarga, shuningdek mevalarga (olma, nok va rovon kabi) ta‘m berish uchun ishlatiladi. Qalampirmunchoq ko'pincha limon va shakar kabi boshqa ingredientlar bilan birlashtirilgan issiq ichimliklarga hid va maza berish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin.

Meksika oshxonasida qalampirmunchoqlar ko'pincha zira va doljin bilan birga ishlatiladi[5]. Ular, shuningdek, Peru oshxonasida, karapulkra va arroz kon leche kabi turli xil taomlarda ishlatiladi.

Chinnigullar ta'mi kimyoviy evgenol[6] tomonidan ta'minlanadi. U doljin, xushbo'y qalampir, vanil, qizil sharob, rayhan, piyoz, sitrus qobig'i, yulduzcha qizilmiya va qalampir no'xatlari bilan yaxshi mos keladi.

Pazandachilikdan tashqari foydalanish[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Ziravorlar Indoneziyada kretek deb nomlangan sigaretada ishlatiladi[7]. Qalampirmunchoq sigaretlari butun Yevropa, Osiyo va Qo'shma Shtatlarda chekilgan.

Qalampirmunchoq efir moyi har xil turdagi oziq-ovqatlarda mog'or o'sishini oldini olish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin[8]. Undan madaniy merosni saqlash tizimida yog'ochni himoya qilish uchun foydalanish mumkin[9]. Qalampirmunchoq apelsin bilan aralashtirilib xushbo'y pomander qilish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin. Viktoriya davridagi Angliyada sovg'a sifatida berilgan, bunday pomander tuyg'uning iliqligini ko'rsatgan.

Chinnigullar quyoshda quritiladi

Potentsial dorivor foydalanish va salbiy ta'sirlar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Qalampirmunchoqni dorivor maqsadlarda ishlatish AQSh oziq-ovqat va farmatsevtika idorasi tomonidan tasdiqlanmagan va uni jigar kasalligi, qon ivishi, immun tizimi kasalliklari yoki oziq-ovqat allergiyasi bo'lgan odamlar og'iz orqali qabul qilsalar, nojo‘ya ta'sir ko'rsatishi mumkin[2].

Qalampirmunchoqlar an'anaviy tibbiyotda efir moyi ko‘rinishida ishlatiladi, u analgetik sifatida, asosan, stomatologik favqulodda vaziyatlarda va boshqa kasalliklar uchun ishlatiladi[10]. Evgenolni o'z ichiga olgan qalampirmunchoq yog'i tish og'rig'i va boshqa og'riqlar uchun samarali foyda berishi haqida dalillar mavjud[2][11][12]. Qalsmpormunchoq efir moyi Enterococcus faecalis bakteriyalarining ko'payishiga to'sqinlik qilishi mumkin[13].

Uning ustida o‘tkazilgan isitmani pasaytirish, chivinlarga qarshi vosita sifatida samaradorligini aniqlash va erta eyakulyatsiyani oldini olishi bo‘yicha tadqiqotlar natijasiz bo'ldi[2][11]. Qondagi qand miqdori qalampirmunchoq yoki qalampirmunchoq yog'i bilan kamayadimi, bu isbotlanmagan[11]. Efir moyi aromaterapiyada ishlatilishi mumkin[2].

Tarix[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Hind okeanidagi avstroneziya proto-tarixiy va tarixiy dengiz savdo tarmog'i [14]

Mustamlaka davrigacha qalampirmunchoq faqat Molukkadagi (tarixda ziravorlar orollari deb ataladigan) bir nechta orollarda, jumladan Bakan, Makian, Moti, Ternate va Tidorda o'sgan[15]. Mutaxassislarning fikricha, Ternatedagi dunyodagi eng qadimgi qalampirmunchoq Afo laqabli daraxt 350-400 yoshda bo'lishi mumkin[16].

Qalampirmunchoq daraxti

Qalampirmunchoqlar dastlab avstroneziya xalqlari tomonidan Avstroneziya dengiz savdo tarmog'ida sotilgan (bu miloddan avvalgi 1500-yillarda boshlangan, keyinchalik Dengiz ipak yo'li va ziravorlar savdosining bir qismiga aylangan). Zamonaviy qalampirmunchoq yetishtirishning birinchi mashhur namunasi Madagaskarning sharqiy qirg'og'ida rivojlangan[17].

Syzygium aromaticum

Arxeolog Giorgio Buccellati Suriyaning Terqa shahrida miloddan avvalgi 1720-yilga tegishli bo'lgan yonib ketgan uyda qalampirmunchoqlarni topdi. Bu qalampirmunchoq Rim davridan oldin g'arbda ishlatilganligining birinchi dalili edi. Bu kashfiyot haqida birinchi marta 1978-yilda xabar berilgan[18][19][20]. Ular eramizning birinchi asrida Rimda tarqalgan[21][22][23].

Qalampirmunchoqning yana bir arxeologik topilmasi Shri-Lankadagi savdo portida eramizdan avvalgi 900-1100 yillarga oid buyumlar orasida topilgan[24]. Song sulolasi davrida (milodiy 960-1279 yillar) Xitoy yozuvlaridan qalampirmunchoq asosan Yava, Shrivijaya, Champa va Butuan, Molukkadan olib kelingan[25].

Qalampirmunchoqlar Xitoy, Shri-Lanka, Janubiy Hindiston, Fors va Ummonda miloddan avvalgi III asrdan II asrgacha bo'lgan yozuvlarda ham mavjud edi[21][22][23]. Xitoy, Janubiy Osiyo va Yaqin Sharqda aytilgan "qalampirmunchoq" haqidagi bu eslatmalar Janubi-Sharqiy Osiyo dengiz savdosi paydo bo'lishidan oldin qayd etilgan. Ammo bularning barchasi boshqa o'simliklarga tegishli noto'g'ri identifikatsiyalardir (masalan, dolchin yoki muskat yong'og'i )[25].

Mustamlaka davrida qalampirmunchoq neft kabi sotilgan va eksportga cheklov qo'yilgan[16]. Gollandiyaning Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasi XVII asrda ziravorlar savdosi ustidan nazoratni mustahkamlaganligi sababli, ular muskat yong'og'ida bo'lgani kabi, qalampirmunchoq uchun ham monopoliyaga ega bo'lishga intilishdi. Biroq, " Bandas hududi bilan chegaralangan muskat yong'og'i va macedan farqli o'laroq, qalampirmunchoq daraxtlari butun Moluccas bo'ylab o'sgan"[26]. Sayyohlarga aytilishicha, aynan shu daraxtning ko'chatlari 1770-yilda Per Poivre ismli frantsuz tomonidan o'g'irlangan, keyinroq esa bir vaqtlar qalampirmunchoq yetishtiruvchi dunyodagi eng yirik eksportchi bo'lgan Zanzibarga ko'chirilgan[16].

Qalampirmunchoq ishlab chiqarishda hozirgi yetakchilar Indoneziya, Madagaskar, Tanzaniya, Shri-Lanka va Komor orollaridir[27]. Indoneziya eng yirik qalampirmunchoq ishlab chiqaruvchisi hisoblanadi, lekin ular ishlab chiqaradigan qalampirmunchoqning faqat kichik bir qismini eksport qiladi, bu mamlakat qalampirmunchoq ishlab chiqarishining taxminan 10-15% ni tashkil qiladi[27].

Fitokimyoviy moddalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Eugenol birikmasi qalampirmunchoqning xarakterli xushbo'yligi uchun javobgardir

Eugenol chinnigullardan olingan efir moyining 72-90% ni tashkil qiladi va chinnigullar aromati uchun eng mas'ul bo'lgan birikma hisoblanadi[6][28]. To'liq ekstraktsiya 125 °C (257 °F) da bosimli suvda 80 daqiqada sodir bo'ladi[29][30].

Syzygium aromaticum mevalari
Ovqat uchun ishlatiladigan qalampirmunchoq

Qalampirmunchoq yog'ining boshqa fitokimyoviy moddalariga atsetil evgenol, beta- karyofilin, vanilin, krategol kislotasi, taninlar, bikornin[6][31], gallotanik kislota, metil salitsilat, flavonoidlar, eugenin, kaempferin, eugenin, terpenni, eugenin, oleanolik kislota, stigmasterol va campesterol kiradi[2][32].

Galereya[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Yana qarang[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Manbalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

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