Guarana

Vikipediya, ochiq ensiklopediya

Guarana Sapindaceae oilasiga mansub o'simlik bo'lib, Amazon havzasida va ayniqsa Braziliyada keng tarqalgan. Guarana katta barglari, gul to'plamlariga ega. O‘simlik ko‘proq kofe donalarining kattaligidagi mevalaridan olingan urug'lar bilan mashhur.

Guaraná mevalari

Guarana urug'i samarali stimulyator hisoblanadi[1]. Uning tarkibida qahva loviyalarida mavjud bo'lgan kofein kontsentratsiyasidan ikki baravar ko'p (guarana urug'larida taxminan 2-8% kofein[2] mavjud) bor[3]. Qo'shimcha sifatida energetik ichimliklarda qo'llaniladi. Kofein ishlab chiqaradigan boshqa o'simliklarda bo'lgani kabi, kofeinning yuqori konsentratsiyasi o‘simlikni o'txo'rlardan himoya qiladi[4].

Meva rangi jigarrangdan qizilgacha o'zgarib turadi. Meva ichida oq arillar bilan qoplangan qora urug'lar mavjud[5].

Tarix va madaniyat[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Guarani tilida meva nomi "xalqning ko'zlari" yoki "xudolarning ko'zlari" degan ma'noni anglatadi.

Guarana kukuni idishi

Guarana Tupi va Guarani madaniyatida muhim rol o'ynaydi. Satere-Maue qabilasiga tegishli afsonaga ko'ra, guarananing xonakilashtirilishi xudoning qishloq bolasini o'ldirishi bilan boshlangan. Qishloq aholisiga tasalli berish uchun mehribon xudo bolaning chap ko'zini yulib, o'rmonga ekdi, natijada yovvoyi guarana paydo bo‘ldi. Keyin xudo bolaning o'ng ko'zini sug'urib oldi va uni yerga ekdi, yerdan xonaki guarana paydo bo'ldi[6]

Guarana mevasi to‘plami

Guaranilar urug'larni tozalash, yuvish va quritish orqali o'simlik choyi tayyorlanadi, keyin ularni mayda kukunga aylantiriladi. Kukundan xamir qoriladi va keyin tegirmonda aylantiriladi. Ushbu mahsulot guarana noni sifatida tanilgan[7].

Bu o'simlik Yevropaga XVI asrda Felip Betendorf, Oviedo, Hernández, Kobo va boshqa ispan yilnomachilari tomonidan kiritilgan. 1958-yilga kelib, guarana tijorat o‘simligiga aylandi[8][9].

Tarkibi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Guarana mevalari

Tadqiqotlarga ko‘ra guarana tarkibida mavjud bo‘lgan kofein qahva, choy va mate kabi boshqa manbalardan olingan kofein bilan bir xil[10].

Guarana kukuni

Kofeinning tabiiy manbalarida kofeindan tashqari turli xil ksantin alkaloidlari, shu jumladan yurak stimulyatorlari teofillin, teobromin va kofein bilan erimaydigan komplekslar hosil qilishi mumkin bo'lgan polifenollar kabi boshqa moddalar mavjud[11][12][13].

Quyidagi jadvalda guarana urug'larida uchraydigan ba'zi kimyoviy moddalarning qisman ro'yxati keltirilgan[14][15].

Guarana urug'lari tarkibiy qismlarining qisman ro'yxati[16][17].
Kimyoviy komponent Bir million uchun qismlar
Adenin
Ash 14200
Kofein 9100–76000
Katexutanik kislota
Xolin
D-katexin
Yog ' 30 000
Guanin
Gipoksantin
Shilliq
Protein 98 600
Qatronlar 70 000
Saponin
Kraxmal 50 000–60 000
Tanin 50 000–120 000
Teobromin 200–400
Teofillin 0–2500
Timbonin
Ksantin

Foydalanish[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Guarana urug'i kukuni

Xavfsizlik[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarida guarana mevasi kukuni va urug'i ekstrakti Oziq-ovqat va farmatsevtika idorasi tomonidan "umumiy ravishda xavfsiz deb tan olingan"[18][19].

Guarana shirin yoki gazlangan alkogolsiz ichimliklar va energetik ichimliklar, o'simlik choylarining tarkibiy qismlarida ishlatiladi. Janubiy Amerikada kofeinning katta qismini guaranadan oladi[20].

Ichimliklar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Dunyoda alkogolsiz ichimliklarning uchinchi yirik iste'molchisi bo'lgan Braziliya[21] guarananing maydalangan urug'laridan bir nechta turdagi alkogolsiz ichimliklarni ishlab chiqaradi va ular qahva iste'mol qilinadi[22]. Paragvayda bir nechta brendlar guaranada alkogolsiz ichimliklar ishlab chiqaradi.

Manbalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  1. Johannes, Laura. Can a Caffeine-Packed Plant Give a Boost?. The Wall Street Journal (2-mart 2010-yil), s. D3.
  2. Schimpl, Flávia Camila; da Silva, José Ferreira; Gonçalves, José Francisco de Carvalho; Mazzafera, Paulo (October 2013). "Guarana: Revisiting a highly caffeinated plant from the Amazon". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 150 (1): 14–31. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.023. PMID 23981847. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378874113005771. 
  3. Caporaso, Nicola; Whitworth, Martin B.; Grebby, Stephen; Fisk, Ian D. (April 2018). "Non-destructive analysis of sucrose, caffeine and trigonelline on single green coffee beans by hyperspectral imaging". Food Research International (Ottawa, Ont.) 106: 193–203. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.031. ISSN 0963-9969. PMID 29579918. PMC 5886291. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5886291. 
  4. "Caffeine and related purine alkaloids: biosynthesis, catabolism, function and genetic engineering". Phytochemistry 69 (4): 841–56. February 2008. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.10.029. PMID 18068204. 
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  9. Weinberg, Bennett Alan. The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World's Most Popular Drug, 2001 — 260 bet. ISBN 9781135958176. 
  10. „Caffeine“. Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, University of Wisconsin-Madison. 24-noyabr 2007-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 19-sentabr 2007-yil.
  11. Balentine, D.A. „Tea: the Plant and its Manufacture; Chemistry and Consumption of the Beverage“,. Caffeine Spiller: . CRC Press, 1998. DOI:10.1201/9781420050134.ch3. ISBN 978-0-8493-2647-9. 
  12. „Substance Name: Caffeine [USP:BAN:JAN“]. ChemIDplus. US National Library of Medicine. Qaraldi: 28-yanvar 2015-yil.
  13. "Liquid chromatographic determination of methylxanthines and catechins in herbal preparations containing guaraná". Journal of AOAC International 81 (4): 691–701. July–August 1998. doi:10.1093/jaoac/81.4.691. PMID 9680692. 
  14. "Guarana", Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases, 2007-09-18, OCLC 41920916, archived from the original on 2004-11-19, https://web.archive.org/web/20041119104654/http://sun.ars-grin.gov:8080/npgspub/xsql/duke/plantdisp.xsql?taxon=703, qaraldi: 2007-09-18 Guarana]]
  15. Duke JA. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-8493-3672-0. OCLC 25874249. 
  16. "Guarana", Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases, 2007-09-18, OCLC 41920916, archived from the original on 2004-11-19, https://web.archive.org/web/20041119104654/http://sun.ars-grin.gov:8080/npgspub/xsql/duke/plantdisp.xsql?taxon=703, qaraldi: 2007-09-18 Guarana]]
  17. Duke JA. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-8493-3672-0. OCLC 25874249. 
  18. „FDA Responds to Durbin's Energy Drink Letter“. Natural Products Insider, Global Health and Nutrition Network (20-avgust 2012-yil). 22-fevral 2017-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 21-fevral 2017-yil.
  19. „Guarana gum and guarana seed extract; Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS); Documents 2189 and 3150“. US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (23-aprel 2013-yil). Qaraldi: 21-fevral 2017-yil.
  20. The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World's Most Popular Drug. New York: Routledge, 2001 — 230 bet. ISBN 978-0-415-92723-9. 
  21. The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World's Most Popular Drug. New York: Routledge, 2001 — 192–3 bet. ISBN 978-0-415-92723-9. 
  22. Standley, Paul C.; Blake, S. F. (1923). "Trees and Shrubs of Mexico (Oxalidaceae-Turneraceae)". Contributions from the United States National Herbarium (Washington, D.C.: Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution) 23 (3): 701.