Shengen hududi

Vikipediya, ochiq ensiklopediya

Shengen hududi (inglizcha: /ˈʃɛŋən/ SHENG-ən, Luxembourgish: [ˈʃæŋən] (</img>) oʻzaro chegaralarida barcha pasport va boshqa barcha turdagi chegara nazoratini rasman bekor qilgan 26 ta Yevropa davlatini oʻz ichiga olgan hudud.Yevropa Ittifoqining erkinlik, xavfsizlik va adolat siyosatining kengroq sohasi elementi boʻlib, u asosan xalqaro sayohatlar uchun umumiy viza siyosati ostida yagona yurisdiktsiya sifatida ishlaydi. Hudud 1985-yilgi Shengen shartnomasi va 1990-yilgi Shengen konventsiyasi sharafiga nomlangan, ikkalasi ham Shengen, Lyuksemburgda imzolangan.

Evropa Ittifoqiga aʼzo 27 davlatdan 22 tasi Shengen hududida ishtirok etadi. Shengen hududiga kirmaydigan beshta Yevropa Ittifoqi aʼzosidan toʻrttasi — Bolgariya, Xorvatiya, Kipr va Ruminiya — kelajakda hududga qoʻshilishga qonuniy ravishda majbur; Irlandiya rad etishni davom ettiradi va buning oʻrniga oʻz viza siyosatini yuritadi. Yevropa erkin savdo assotsiatsiyasiga (EFTA) aʼzo boʻlgan toʻrtta davlat, Islandiya, Lixtenshteyn, Norvegiya va Shveysariya Yevropa Ittifoqiga aʼzo emas, lekin Shengen kelishuvi bilan hamkorlikda shartnomalar imzolagan. Shuningdek,Yevropaning uchta mikrodavlati - Monako, San-Marino va Vatikan oʻz qoʻshnilari bilan yoʻlovchi tashish uchun ochiq chegaralarni saqlab turadi va shuning uchun ularga tranzitsiz yoki tranzitsiz sayohat qilishning amaliy imkoni yoʻqligi sababli Shengen hududining de-fakto aʼzolari hisoblanadi. kamida bitta Shengenga aʼzo davlat orqali.[1]

Shengen hududida deyarli 420 kishi istiqomat qiladi million kishi va maydoni 4,312,099 square kilometre (1,664,911 mi²) .[2] Har kuni 1,7 millionga yaqin odamYevropaning ichki chegarasi orqali ishlash uchun oʻtadi va baʼzi mintaqalarda bu odamlar ishchi kuchining uchdan bir qismini tashkil qiladi. Har yili Shengen chegaralarini jami 1,3 milliard kesib oʻtadi. Har yili 2,8 trillionYevro qiymatiga ega boʻlgan 57 million oʻtish avtomobil transportida yuk tashish hisobiga amalga oshiriladi.[3][4][5] Shengen tufayli savdo narxining pasayishi geografiya, savdo sheriklari va boshqa omillarga qarab 0,42% dan 1,59% gacha oʻzgarib turadi. Shengen hududidan tashqaridagi davlatlar ham foyda koʻradi.[6] Shengen zonasi davlatlari Shengenga kirmagan davlatlar bilan chegara nazoratini kuchaytirdilar.[7]

Tarixi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Shengen shartnomasi 1985-yil 14-iyunda Yevropa Ittifoqiga aʼzo oʻnta davlatdan beshtasi[8] tomonidan Shengen (Lyuksemburg) shahrida imzolangan. Shengen hududi Yevropa hamjamiyatlaridan alohida tashkil etilgan, bunda Yevropa Ittifoqiga aʼzo barcha davlatlar oʻrtasida chegara nazoratini bekor qilish boʻyicha konsensusga erishilmagan.

Shartnoma 1990-yilda ichki chegara nazoratini bekor qilishni va umumiy viza siyosatini taklif qilgan Shengen konventsiyasi bilan toʻldirildi.[9] Shartnomalar va ular boʻyicha qabul qilingan qoidalar EK tuzilmalaridan butunlay alohida edi va 1995-yil 26-martda Shengen hududining yaratilishiga olib keldi[10]

Evropa Ittifoqiga aʼzo davlatlar koʻproq Shengen bitimini imzolaganligi sababli, uniYevropa Ittifoqi tartiblariga kiritish boʻyicha konsensusga erishildi. Bitim va unga tegishli konventsiyalar 1997-yilda 1999-yilda kuchga kirgan Amsterdam shartnomasi bilan Yevropa Ittifoqi qonunchiligining asosiy oqimiga kiritilgan. Shartnomaning Yevropa huquqining bir qismi boʻlishining natijasi shundaki, har qanday tuzatish yoki tartibga solish uning jarayonlari doirasida amalga oshiriladi, bundaYevropa Ittifoqiga aʼzo boʻlmaganlar ishtirok etmaydi.

Buyuk Britaniya, Crown Dependencies va Irlandiya 1923-yildan beri umumiy sayohat hududini (CTA) boshqaradi (pasportsiz sayohat va bir-birlari bilan harakatlanish erkinligi bilan), ammo Buyuk Britaniya boshqa mamlakatlar bilan chegara nazoratini bekor qilmadi va shuning uchun undan voz kechdi. Shartnoma. Shengen shartnomasini imzolamagan boʻlsa-da, Irlandiya har doim qoʻshilish haqida koʻproq maʼqul koʻrgan, ammo CTA va uning Shimoliy Irlandiya bilan ochiq chegarasini saqlab qolish uchun buni qilmagan.

Aʼzolik[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Hozirgi aʼzolar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Andoza:Schengen Agreement Labelled Map 2Shengen hududi 26 ta davlatdan iborat boʻlib, ulardan toʻrttasi Yevropa Ittifoqiga (EI) aʼzo emas.Yevropa Ittifoqiga aʼzo boʻlmaganlardan ikkitasi – Islandiya va Norvegiya – Shimoliy Pasport Ittifoqining bir qismidir va rasmiy ravishdaYevropa Ittifoqining Shengen faoliyati bilan bogʻliq davlatlar sifatida tasniflanadi. 2008-yilda Shveysariyaga ham xuddi shunday tarzda ishtirok etishga ruxsat berilgan. Lixtenshteyn Shengen hududiga 2011-yil 19-dekabrda qoʻshilgan[11] De-fakto, Shengen hududiga uchta Yevropa mikrodavlati ham kiradi – Monako, San-Marino va Vatikan – Shengenga aʼzo boshqa davlatlar bilan ochiq yoki yarim ochiq chegaralarni saqlaydigan.[1]

Bir Yevropa Ittifoqiga aʼzo davlat – Irlandiya – Shengendan voz kechish boʻyicha muzokaralar olib bordi va boshqaYevropa Ittifoqiga aʼzo davlatlar bilan chegara nazoratini amalga oshirishda davom etmoqda, shu bilan birga Buyuk Britaniya (sobiq YeI aʼzosi) va Crown Dependencies bilan ochiq chegaradagi Umumiy sayohat hududining bir qismidir. Qolgan toʻrttaYevropa Ittifoqiga aʼzo davlatlar – Bolgariya, Xorvatiya, Kipr va Ruminiya – Qoʻshilish toʻgʻrisidagi shartnomalari boʻyicha Shengen hududiga qoʻshilish majburiyatini oladilar. Biroq, Shengen qoidalarini toʻliq amalga oshirishdan oldin, har bir davlat oʻz tayyorgarligini toʻrtta yoʻnalishda baholashi kerak: havo chegaralari, vizalar, politsiya bilan hamkorlik va shaxsiy maʼlumotlarni himoya qilish. Ushbu baholash jarayoni soʻrovnoma vaYevropa Ittifoqi ekspertlarining baholanayotgan mamlakatdagi tanlangan muassasalar va ish joylariga tashriflarini oʻz ichiga oladi.[12]

2020-yil oxirida Yevropa Ittifoqi / EEA aʼzolari oʻrtasida chegara nazorati boʻlgan yagona quruqlik chegaralari (vaqtinchaliklarni hisobga olmaganda) Bolgariya, Xorvatiya va Ruminiyani bir-biridan vaYevropa Ittifoqining qolgan qismidan ajratadigan chegaralardir.[13]

Members of the Schengen Area
State Area

(km2)
PopulationAndoza:UN Population

(Andoza:UN Population)
Date

signed[Note 1]
Date of first

implementation[Note 2]
 Austria 83 871 Andoza:UN Population 28 April 1995[14] 1 December 1997[15][16][Note 3]
 Belgium 30 528 Andoza:UN Population 14 June 1985[17] 26 March 1995[18]
 Czech Republic 78 866 Andoza:UN Population 16 April 2003[19] 21 December 2007[20][Note 4]
 Denmark

       (excluding  Greenland and the  Faroe Islands, but see [Note 5])
43 094 Andoza:UN Population 19 December 1996[26] 25 March 2001[27]
 Estonia 45 338 Andoza:UN Population 16 April 2003[19] 21 December 2007[20][Note 4]
 Finland 338 145 Andoza:UN Population 19 December 1996[28] 25 March 2001[27]
 France

       (excluding overseas departments and collectivities)[Note 6]
551 695 Andoza:UN Population 14 June 1985[17] 26 March 1995[18]
 Germany[Note 7]

       (previously excluding Büsingen am Hochrhein)[30]
357 022 Andoza:UN Population 14 June 1985[17] 26 March 1995[18]
 Greece[Note 8] 131 990 Andoza:UN Population 6 November 1992[34] 1 January 2000[35][Note 9]
 Hungary 93 030 Andoza:UN Population 16 April 2003[19] 21 December 2007[20][Note 4]
 Iceland[Note 10] 103 000 Andoza:UN Population 19 December 1996[37]

18 May 1999[38][Note 11]
25 March 2001[27]
 Italy 301 318 Andoza:UN Population 27 November 1990[40] 26 October 1997[16][41][Note 12]
 Latvia 64 589 Andoza:UN Population 16 April 2003[19] 21 December 2007[20][Note 4]
 Liechtenstein[Note 10] 160 Andoza:UN Population 28 February 2008[42] 19 December 2011[43]
 Lithuania 65 300 Andoza:UN Population 16 April 2003[19] 21 December 2007[20][Note 4]
 {{{name}}} 2 586 Andoza:UN Population 14 June 1985[17] 26 March 1995[18]
 Malta 316 Andoza:UN Population 16 April 2003[19] 21 December 2007[20][Note 4]
 Netherlands

       (excluding Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and the Caribbean Netherlands)
41 526 Andoza:UN Population 14 June 1985[17] 26 March 1995[18]
 Norway[Note 10]

       (excluding Svalbard)[44]
385 155 Andoza:UN Population 19 December 1996[37]

18 May 1999[38][Note 11]
25 March 2001[27]
 Poland 312 683 Andoza:UN Population 16 April 2003[19] 21 December 2007[20][Note 4]
 Portugal 92 391 Andoza:UN Population 25 June 1991[45] 26 March 1995[18]
 Slovakia 49 037 Andoza:UN Population 16 April 2003[19] 21 December 2007[20][Note 4]
 Slovenia 20 273 Andoza:UN Population 16 April 2003[19] 21 December 2007[20][Note 4]
 Spain

       (with special provisions for Ceuta and Melilla)[Note 13]
505 990 Andoza:UN Population 25 June 1991[47][48] 26 March 1995[18]
 Sweden 449 964 Andoza:UN Population 19 December 1996[49] 25 March 2001[27]
 Switzerland[Note 10]

       (with Büsingen am Hochrhein)
41 285 Andoza:UN Population 26 October 2004[50] 12 December 2008[51][Note 14]
 EU 4 189 111 417 597 460 14 June 1985[17] 26 March 1995[18]
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  3. European Parliamentary Research Service. „The economic impact of suspending Schengen“ (2016-yil mart). Qaraldi: 15-iyun 2017-yil.
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  13. „Protocol on the accession of the Government of the Republic of Austria to the Agreement between the Governments of the Member States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of controls at their common borders, signed at Schengen on 14 June 1985, as amended by the Protocols of 27 November 1990, 25 June 1991 and 6 November 1992 on the accession of the Governments of the Italian Republic, the Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic and the Hellenic Republic, respectively“. Government of the Netherlands. Qaraldi: 31-oktabr 2014-yil.
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  15. 16,0 16,1 „Council Decision of 20 May 1999 concerning the definition of the Schengen acquis for the purpose of determining, in conformity with the relevant provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Community and the Treaty on European Union, the legal basis for each of the provisions or decisions which constitute the acquis“. Official Journal of the European Union. L-jild, № 176/1. 10–iyul 1999–yil. Qaraldi: 1–noyabr 2014–yil.{{cite magazine}}: CS1 maint: date format ()
  16. 17,0 17,1 17,2 17,3 17,4 17,5 „Agreement between the Governments of the States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the Gradual Abolition of Checks at their Common Borders“. Government of the Netherlands. Qaraldi: 31-oktabr 2014-yil.
  17. 18,0 18,1 18,2 18,3 18,4 18,5 18,6 18,7 „Decision of the Executive Committee of 22 December 1994 on bringing into force the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement of 19 June 1990“. Official Journal of the European Union. L-jild, № 239/130. 22–dekabr 1994–yil. Qaraldi: 31–oktabr 2014–yil.{{cite magazine}}: CS1 maint: date format ()
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  33. „Protocol on the accession of the Government of the Hellenic Republic to the Agreement between the Governments of the Member States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of controls at their common borders, signed at Schengen on 14 June 1985, as amended by the Protocol signed at Paris on 27 November 1990 on the accession of the Government of the Italian Republic and by the Protocols signed at Bonn on 25 June 1991 on the accession of the Governments of the Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic“. Government of the Netherlands. Qaraldi: 31-oktabr 2014-yil.
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  35. This terminology is, for example, used in the Final Act of the Agreement concluded by the Council of the European Union and the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway concerning the latters' association with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis.
  36. 37,0 37,1 „Cooperation agreement between the Kingdom of Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, the French Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Italian Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Portuguese Republic, the Hellenic Republic, the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Kingdom of Sweden, i.e. the Contracting Parties to the Schengen Agreement and to the Schengen Convention, and the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway, on the gradual abolition of controls at their common borders“. Government of the Netherlands. Qaraldi: 1-noyabr 2014-yil.
  37. 38,0 38,1 „Agreement with the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway concerning the latters' association with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis“. Council of the European Union. Qaraldi: 1-noyabr 2014-yil.
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  39. „Protocol on the accession of the Government of the Italian Republic to the Agreement between the Governments of the Member States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of controls at their common borders, signed at Schengen on 14 June 1985“. Government of the Netherlands. Qaraldi: 31-oktabr 2014-yil.
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  41. „Protocol between the European Union, the European Community, the Swiss Confederation and the Principality of Liechtenstein on the accession of the Principality of Liechtenstein to the Agreement between the European Union, the European Community and the Swiss Confederation on the Swiss Confederation's association with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis“. Council of the European Union. Qaraldi: 1-noyabr 2014-yil.
  42. „COUNCIL DECISION of 13 December 2011 on the full application of the provisions of the Schengen acquis in the Principality of Liechtenstein“. Official Journal of the European Union. L-jild, № 334/27. 5–dekabr 2011–yil. Qaraldi: 27–oktabr 2014–yil.{{cite magazine}}: CS1 maint: date format ()
  43. „Agreement concluded by the Council of the European Union and the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway concerning the latters' association with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis - Final Act“.
  44. „Protocol on the accession of the Government of the Portuguese Republic to the Agreement between the Governments of the Member States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of controls at their common borders, signed at Schengen on 14 June 1985, as amended by the Protocol on the accession of the Italian Republic signed at Paris on 27 November 1990“. Government of the Netherlands. Qaraldi: 31-oktabr 2014-yil.
  45. Declaration No. 1. on Ceuta and Melilla attached to the Final Act of the Accession Treaty of the Kingdom of Spain to the Schengen Agreement (OJ L 239, 22 September 2000, p. 69)
  46. „Protocol on the accession of the Government of the Kingdom of Spain to the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985 between the Governments of the Member States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of controls at their common borders, as amended by the Protocol on the accession of the Italian Republic signed at Paris on 27 November 1990“. Government of the Netherlands. Qaraldi: 31-oktabr 2014-yil.
  47. „The Schengen acquis - Agreement on the Accession of the Kingdom of Spain to the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985 between the Governments of the States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders signed at Schengen on 19 June 1990, to which the Italian Republic acceded by the Agreement signed at Paris on 27 November 1990“. eur-lex.europa.eu.
  48. „Protocol on the accession of the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden to the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985 on the gradual abolition of controls at the contracting parties' common borders“. Government of the Netherlands. Qaraldi: 31-oktabr 2014-yil.
  49. „Agreement between the European Union, the European Community and the Swiss Confederation on the Swiss Confederation's association with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis“. Council of the European Union. Qaraldi: 1-noyabr 2014-yil.
  50. 51,0 51,1 „COUNCIL DECISION of 27 November 2008 on the full application of the provisions of the Schengen acquis in the Swiss Confederation“. Official Journal of the European Union. L-jild, № 327/15. 5–dekabr 2008–yil. Qaraldi: 27–oktabr 2014–yil.{{cite magazine}}: CS1 maint: date format ()


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