Dunyo tili

Vikipediya, ochiq ensiklopediya

Ijtimoiy tilshunoslikda dunyo tili (ba'zan global til, [1] kamdan-kam hollarda xalqaro til [2] [3] ) geografik jihatdan keng tarqalgan va turli til jamoalari vakillarining muloqot qilishiga imkon beradigan tildir. Bu atama esperanto kabi tuzilgan xalqaro yordamchi tillarga nisbatan ham ishlatilishi mumkin. [4]

Ingliz tili eng asosiy va ba'zi ma'lumotlarga ko'ra dunyo tilidir. Bundan tashqari, qaysi tillar mos kelishi haqida akademik konsensus yo'q; Arab, frantsuz, rus va ispan tillari boshqa mumkin bo'lgan dunyo tillaridir. Ba'zi mualliflar lotin tilini ilgari jahon tili bo'lgan deb hisoblashadi.

Kontseptsiya[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Jahon tili atamasining turli ta’riflari taklif qilingan; qaysi birini ishlatish haqida umumiy konsensus yo'q. [5] [6]

Kongolik tilshunos Salikoko Mufwene tomonidan taqdim etilgan ta'riflardan biri "o'z vatanlaridan tashqarida va ular bilan etnik yoki milliy jihatdan bog'liq bo'lmagan populyatsiyalar tomonidan mahalliy tillar yoki lingua frankalar sifatida gapiriladigan tillar". [7] Tilshunos Muhammad Benrabah jahon tili atamasini golland sotsiologi Abram de Svan oʻzining global til tizimida “supermarkaz tillar” deb atagan soʻz bilan tenglashtiradi. [8] Ispaniyalik sotsiolingvist Kler Mar-Molinero til demografik, tilga munosabat, siyosiy, huquqiy, iqtisodiy, ilmiy, texnologik, akademik, ta’lim va madaniy sohalarga oid bir qator testlardan o‘tishni taklif qiladi. [9]

Nemis sotsialologi de (ingl.) biror narsaning dunyo tili ekanligini aniqlaydigan narsa uning "global funktsiyasi" dir, ya'ni global muloqot uchun, xususan, uni ona tili sifatida ishlatmaydigan va lingua franca sifatida ishlatadigan odamlar o'rtasida foydalanish. -ya'ni, u ishtirokchilarning birortasining ona tili bo'lmagan muloqotda - eng katta og'irlik. [10] Ammon globallikning bir qator ko'rsatkichlarini, ya'ni ma'lum bir tilni jahon tili deb hisoblash darajasini baholash uchun foydali omillarni shakllantiradi. Bu ko'rsatkichlar orasida asosiysi ona tili bo'lmaganlar soni. Yana bir ko'rsatkich - bu ona tilida so'zlashuvchilar soni bo'lib, u o'z-o'zidan globallik mezoni bo'lmasa-da, u bilan empirik jihatdan ijobiy bog'liqdir va tilni yanada jozibador qilish orqali unga bilvosita ta'sir qilishi mumkin. Boshqa potentsial ko'rsatkichlar iqtisodiy kuch (ona tilida so'zlashuvchilarning YaIM sifatida o'lchanadi), tilni rasmiy til sifatida ishlatadigan mamlakatlar soni, shuningdek, ushbu mamlakatlarning geografik taqsimoti, xalqaro biznesdan foydalanish va ilmiy nashrlarda tarqalganlikdir. [11]

Misollar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Salikoko Mufwene arab tilini jahon tili sifatida ta'riflagan - garchi lingua franca sifatida cheklanganligi sababli ingliz va frantsuz tillaridan keyin ikkinchi darajali bo'lsa ham - bu dunyo bo'ylab musulmon jamoalari orasida mashxur til bo'lganligi sababli. [12] Mohamed Benrabah bu dalilni tilning diniy kontekstdan tashqarida og'zaki mahoratga tarjima qilish shart emasligi sababli marosimlarda qo'llanilishini tanqid qiladi, lekin shunga qaramay, de Svanning global til tizimida supermarkaziy til bo'lganligi sababli uni dunyo tili sifatida tasniflaydi. [8]

Ingliz[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Akademik konsensus shundan iboratki, ingliz tili jahon tili bo'lib, ingliz tilshunoslari Devid Kristal va Devid Graddol kabi ba'zi mualliflar uni yagona til deb bilishadi. Plyuralistik yondashuvni qo'llagan mualliflar, shunga qaramay, ingliz tilini dunyodagi eng yetakchi til sifatida o'ziga xos mavqega ega deb bilishadi; masalan, Abram de Svanning global til tizimida ingliz tili ierarxiyadagi eng yuqori o'rinning yagona egasidir: gipermarkaz til. [8] Nemis sotsiolingvist de (ingl.) Ammonning fikricha, “[t]Bu yerda tilning xalqaro yoki global darajasi uchun deyarli hech qanday tavsiflovchi parametr yoki koʻrsatkich yoʻq, agar u bugungi dunyo tillariga qoʻllanilsa, ingliz tilini yuqori oʻringa qoʻymaydi”. [13] Ammon va Mufvenning ta'kidlashicha, ingliz tilini dunyodagi eng muhim til sifatida ajratib turadigan narsa uning lingua franca sifatida ishlatilishidir, [14] [15] Kristal esa uning geografik tarqalishiga e'tibor qaratadi. [16]

Fransuz[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Fransuz tili de Svanning global til tizimidagi supermarkaziy til maqomi tufayli dunyo tili sifatida ta'riflangan [8] va Salikoko Mufven uni lingua franca yoki etnik jihatdan bo'lmagan odamlar tomonidan so'zlashayotganiga asoslanib shunday tavsiflaydi.Milliy miqyosda Frantsiyadan tashqarida u bilan bog'liq muloqotlar mavjud [7]

Lotin[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Ba'zi mualliflar lotin tilini ilgari jahon tili bo'lgan deb hisoblashadi. [17] [18] [19]

Rus[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Rus tili de Svanning global til tizimida supermarkaziy til boʻlganligi sababli jahon tili sifatida tasniflangan [8] va Salikoko Mufven tomonidan xalq tili yoki til sifatida qoʻllanilganligi sababli jahon tili sifatida tavsiflangan. Rus bo'lmaganlar tomonidan Rossiyadan tashqaridagi franka . [7]

Ispancha[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Ispan tili de Svanning global til tizimida supermarkaziy til boʻlganligi sababli dunyo tili sifatida tasniflangan [8] va nemis sotsiolingvist de (ingl.) tomonidan jahon tili deb hisoblangan., chunki u butun dunyo bo'ylab chet tili sifatida gapiriladi. [20] Salikoko Mufwene, shuningdek, uni jahon tili deb hisoblaydi - garchi lingua franca sifatida cheklanganligi sababli ingliz va frantsuz tillaridan keyin ikkinchi darajali bo'lsa ham - u Ispaniyadan tashqarida na etnik, na milliy jihatdan bog'liq bo'lmagan odamlar tomonidan xalq tili sifatida ishlatiladi. . [21]

  1. Ammon, Ulrich (2010-10-07), Coupland, Nikolas, ed., "World Languages: Trends and Futures", The Handbook of Language and Globalization (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell): 101, doi:10.1002/9781444324068.ch4, ISBN 978-1-4443-2406-8 
  2. Ammon, Ulrich (1997), Stevenson, Patrick, ed., "To What Extent is German an International Language?" (en), The German Language and the Real World: Sociolinguistic, Cultural, and Pragmatic Perspectives on Contemporary German (Clarendon Press): 25–53, ISBN 978-0-19-823738-9, https://books.google.com/books?id=AviTvt-cPaUC&pg=PA25 
  3. de Mejía, Anne-Marie. Power, Prestige, and Bilingualism: International Perspectives on Elite Bilingual Education (en). Multilingual Matters, 2002 — 47–49 bet. ISBN 978-1-85359-590-5. „'international language' or 'world language' [...] The following languages of wider communication, that may be used as first or as second or foreign languages, are generally recognised: English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Arabic, Russian and Chinese.“ 
  4. Ammon, Ulrich. Status and Function of Languages and Language Varieties (en). Walter de Gruyter, 1989 — 422 bet. ISBN 978-3-11-086025-2. 13-fevral 2021-yilda qaraldi. „By the term world language approximately the following can be understood: Firstly, [...]. Secondly, international planned languages (e.g Esperanto, Ido, Interlingua).“ 
  5. García, Adolfo M. (2014-01-02). "Neurocognitive determinants of performance variability among world-language users". Journal of World Languages 1 (1): 60–77. doi:10.1080/21698252.2014.893671. ISSN 2169-8252. "the notion of world language has been variously defined" 
  6. Wright, Roger (2012), Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel; Conde-Silvestre, Juan Camilo, eds., "Convergence and Divergence in World Languages", The Handbook of Language and Globalization (John Wiley & Sons): 552, doi:10.1002/9781118257227.ch30, ISBN 978-1-4051-9068-8, https://books.google.com/books?id=SIWpmWNoB7YC&pg=PA552, qaraldi: 2021-04-16, "There is no generally agreed precise definition of what counts as a 'World' Language. For the purposes of this chapter, they can be defined as languages spoken over a wide geographical area, often as a result of previous colonization, and in many cases by native speakers of some other language. The category now includes Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English, but with reference to historically earlier periods the label has been applied to Latin [...]" Dunyo tili]]
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 Mufwene, Salikoko S. (2010-10-07), Coupland, Nikolas, ed., "Globalization, Global English, and World English(es): Myths and Facts", The Handbook of Language and Globalization (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell): 42, doi:10.1002/9781444324068.ch1, ISBN 978-1-4443-2406-8, "By the middle of the twentieth century, a few European colonial languages had emerged as 'world languages,' in the sense of languages spoken as vernaculars or as lingua francas outside their homelands and by populations other than those ethnically or nationally associated with them. These included English, French, Russian, and Spanish."  Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":3" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":3" defined multiple times with different content
  8. 8,0 8,1 8,2 8,3 8,4 8,5 Benrabah, Mohamed (2014-01-02). "Competition between four "world" languages in Algeria". Journal of World Languages 1 (1): 38–59. doi:10.1080/21698252.2014.893676. ISSN 2169-8252.  Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":2" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":2" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":2" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":2" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":2" defined multiple times with different content
  9. Mar-Molinero, Clare (2004-01-01). "Spanish as a world language: Language and identity in a global era" (en). Spanish in Context 1 (1): 8. doi:10.1075/sic.1.1.03mar. ISSN 1571-0718. https://www.jbe-platform.com/content/journals/10.1075/sic.1.1.03mar. "By 'international' I am referring to a language spoken as a mother tongue in more than one national context. This is not necessarily (or normally) the same as a 'global' language. To define the latter it is necessary to identify certain criteria [...] The following 'tests' which I propose as necessary to meet the definition of 'global' language are based loosely on the work of David Crystal (1997) and David Graddol (1997) in respect of English as a global language. We need to ask such questions as: [...]" 
  10. Ammon, Ulrich (2010-10-07), Coupland, Nikolas, ed., "World Languages: Trends and Futures", The Handbook of Language and Globalization (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell): 102–103, doi:10.1002/9781444324068.ch4, ISBN 978-1-4443-2406-8, "A concept of 'world language' which is useful for our purposes would be based on its global function, which means 'use for global communication' and can be specified further [...]" 
  11. Ammon, Ulrich (2010-10-07), Coupland, Nikolas, ed., "World Languages: Trends and Futures", The Handbook of Language and Globalization (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell): 104–116, doi:10.1002/9781444324068.ch4, ISBN 978-1-4443-2406-8 
  12. Mufwene, Salikoko S. (2010-10-07), Coupland, Nikolas, ed., "Globalization, Global English, and World English(es): Myths and Facts", The Handbook of Language and Globalization (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell): 43, doi:10.1002/9781444324068.ch1, ISBN 978-1-4443-2406-8, "overlooking variation across nations, Arabic counts as a 'world language' to the extent that it is used as a religious/ritual language wherever Islam is practiced; but it does not have that status of lingua franca associated with English and French as languages of business/trade and scholarship which are also used by non-native speakers. Arabic is thus reduced to the same status as Spanish, which outside Spain is spoken mostly in Latin America, as the dominant vernacular." 
  13. Ammon, Ulrich (2010), "World Languages: Trends and Futures" (en), The Handbook of Language and Globalization (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd): 116–117, doi:10.1002/9781444324068.ch4, ISBN 978-1-4443-2406-8, "There is virtually no descriptive parameter or indicator for the international or global rank of a language which, if applied to today's languages world-wide, does not place English at the top" 
  14. Mufwene, Salikoko S. (2010-10-07), Coupland, Nikolas, ed., "Globalization, Global English, and World English(es): Myths and Facts", The Handbook of Language and Globalization (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell): 43, doi:10.1002/9781444324068.ch1, ISBN 978-1-4443-2406-8, "It thus appears that what has made English the foremost "world language" is its function as lingua franca" 
  15. Ammon, Ulrich (2010-10-07), Coupland, Nikolas, ed., "World Languages: Trends and Futures", The Handbook of Language and Globalization (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell): 103, doi:10.1002/9781444324068.ch4, ISBN 978-1-4443-2406-8, "It is such usage, as lingua franca, that distinguishes English most noticeably from other languages." 
  16. Crystal, David. The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language, Internet Archive, Cambridge [England]; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1995 — 106 bet. ISBN 978-0-521-40179-1. „English is now the dominant or official language in over 60 countries (see the table on p. 109), and is represented in every continent and in the three major oceans – Atlantic (e.g. St Helena), Indian (e.g. Seychelles), and Pacific (e.g. Hawaii). It is this spread of representation which makes the application of the term 'world language' a reality.“ 
  17. Wright, Roger (2012), Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel; Conde-Silvestre, Juan Camilo, eds., "Convergence and Divergence in World Languages", The Handbook of Language and Globalization (John Wiley & Sons): 552, doi:10.1002/9781118257227.ch30, ISBN 978-1-4051-9068-8, https://books.google.com/books?id=SIWpmWNoB7YC&pg=PA552, "There is no generally agreed precise definition of what counts as a 'World' Language. For the purposes of this chapter, they can be defined as languages spoken over a wide geographical area, often as a result of previous colonization, and in many cases by native speakers of some other language. The category now includes Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English, but with reference to historically earlier periods the label has been applied to Latin [...]" 
  18. Mufwene, Salikoko S. (2010-10-07), Coupland, Nikolas, ed., "Globalization, Global English, and World English(es): Myths and Facts", The Handbook of Language and Globalization (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell): 42, doi:10.1002/9781444324068.ch1, ISBN 978-1-4443-2406-8, "I submit that, as in the case of that earlier 'world language,' Latin, it was the association with trade and (more) lucrative business that favored English over its competitors, both in the United States and around the world." 
  19. Crystal, David. English as a global language, 2nd, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003 — 190 bet. ISBN 0-511-07862-5. OCLC 57418548. „The emergence of English with a genuine global presence therefore has a significance which goes well beyond this particular language. Because there are no precedents for languages achieving this level of use (if we exclude Latin, which was in a sense 'global' when the world was much smaller), we do not know what happens to them in such circumstances.“ 
  20. Ammon, Ulrich (2010-10-07), Coupland, Nikolas, ed., "World Languages: Trends and Futures", The Handbook of Language and Globalization (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell): 102, doi:10.1002/9781444324068.ch4, ISBN 978-1-4443-2406-8, "We would nevertheless include Spanish into the plurality of world languages with which we deal here, on the grounds that one finds those who speak it as a foreign language in countries around the world." 
  21. Mufwene, Salikoko S. (2010-10-07), Coupland, Nikolas, ed., "Globalization, Global English, and World English(es): Myths and Facts", The Handbook of Language and Globalization (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell): 42–43, doi:10.1002/9781444324068.ch1, ISBN 978-1-4443-2406-8, "By the middle of the twentieth century, a few European colonial languages had emerged as 'world languages,' in the sense of languages spoken as vernaculars or as lingua francas outside their homelands and by populations other than those ethnically or nationally associated with them. These included English, French, Russian, and Spanish. [...] Arabic counts as a 'world language' to the extent that it is used as a religious/ritual language wherever Islam is practiced; but it does not have that status of lingua franca associated with English and French as languages of business/trade and scholarship which are also used by non-native speakers. Arabic is thus reduced to the same status as Spanish, which outside Spain is spoken mostly in Latin America, as the dominant vernacular."