Devid Kristal

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Devid Kristal
David Crystal
Tavalludi 6-iyul 1941-yil
Birlashgan Qirollik Shimoliy Irlandiya Lisburn
Fuqaroligi Birlashgan Qirollik
Millati British
Sohasi Tilshunos
Taʼlimi University College London
Vebsayt davidcrystal.com

Devid Kristal, OBE , FBA , FLSW , FCIL kabi ilmiy unvonlarga erishgan (1941-yil 6-iyulda tugʻilgan) — britaniyalik tilshunos, akademik va yozuvchi.

Oilasi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Kristal 1941-yil 6-iyulda Shimoliy Irlandiyaning Lisbern shahrida onasi Blits paytida evakuatsiya qilinganidan keyin tug‘ilgan. U bir yoshga to'lmasdan, ota-onasi ajralishdi. U bolalik paytlarida otasidan uzoqda yashadi va otasi haqidagi ma'lumotlardan bexabar edi, lekin keyinchalik (ishidagi tanishlari va o'gay akasi orqali) Londondagi doktor Samuel Kristalning hayoti va faoliyati, bundan tashqari uning yarim yahudiy merosi haqida bilib oldi. U onasi bilan Shimoliy Uelsning Xolihed va Angliyaning Liverpul shaharlarida o'sgan va u erda 1951 yildan Sent-Meri kollejida o'qigan [1] Kristal Rim-katolik dinidadir . [2]

Hozirda u sobiq nutq terapevti bo'lgan, hozirda esa bolalar adabiyoti yozuvchisi bo‘lgan rafiqasi Xilari bilan Xolihedda yashaydi. Uning to‘rt nafar voyaga yetgan farzandi bor. Uning o'g'li Ben Kristal ham yozuvchi bo'lib, otasi bilan birga to'rtta kitob yozgan. [3]

Karyera[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Kristal 1959-1962 yillarda London Universitet kollejida ingliz tilini mutaxassisligida o'qigan [4] va 1962-1963 yillarda Rendolf Kvirk qo'l ostida tadqiqotchi sifatida, Ingliz tilidan foydalanish bo'yicha tadqiqot ustida ishlagan. [4] [5] O'shandan beri u Bangor universiteti va "Reading" nomli universitetda ma'ruzalar o'qigan va Bangorda tilshunoslik bo'yicha faxriy professor hisoblanadi. [6] Akademiyadan asosiy ishchi sifatida nafaqaga chiqqach, u yozuvchi, muharrir va maslahatchi bo‘lib ishlaydi, shu orqali televideniye va radioeshittirishlarga hissa qo‘shadi. Uning Bi-bi-si bilan aloqasi juda keng. Ya'ni dastlab BBC Radio 4 -ning til masalalariga bag'ishlangan seriyasida hamkorlikni boshlagan bo'lsa, hozirgi kunda esa yaqinda tashkil qilingan ingliz tilini o'rganayotganlar uchun BBC Jahon Xizmati veb-saytidagi podkastlarda ham ishtirok etadi. [7]

Kristal 1995 yilda OBE (Britaniya Imperiyasi Ordeni) bilan taqdirlangan va 2000 yilda Britaniya akademiyasining a'zosi bo'lgan [8] [9] U, shuningdek , Uels Ta'lim jamiyati asoschisi va Uyushgan Tilshunoslar Institutining a'zosi hisoblanadi. Uning ko'plab ilmiy qiziqishlari sirasiga ingliz tilini o'rganish va o'qitish, klinik tilshunoslik, sud-tibbiy tilshunoslik, til o'limi (tilni muomaladan chiqishi), "ludik lingvistika" (til o'yinini o'rganish uchun Kristalning fanga kiritgan neologizmi ), uslub, ingliz janri, Shekspir, indekslash va leksikografiya kiradi . U chet tili sifatida ingliz tili oʻqituvchilari xalqaro assotsiatsiyasining (IATEFL) homiysi, Chartered Institute of Editing and Proofreading (CIEP) faxriy prezidenti [10] va Buyuk Britaniya Milliy Savodxonlik Assotsiatsiyasi homiysi. [11] bundan tashqari u Babel - tilga bag'ishlangan jurnal uchun maslahatchi bo'lib, u uchun maqolalar ham yozib turadi. [12]

Ish[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Kristal turli mavzularda 120 dan ortiq kitoblarning muallifi, hammuallifi va tahrirchisi hisoblanadi. Shuningdek u manbalarni tahrirlash bo'yicha ham ish olib borgan. Ular orasida taniqlilari: (muallif sifatida) Kembrij entsiklopediyasi (1987, 1997, 2010) va Kembrij entsiklopediyasi . Ingliz tili (1995, 2003, 2019) va (muharrir sifatida) Kembrij biografik lug'ati, Kembrij fakt topuvchisi, Kembrij entsiklopediyasi va Yangi pingvin ensiklopediyasi (2003). [4] Bundan tashqari , u pyesalar va she'rlar yozgan. [13] U kitobxonlar uchun tilshunoslik va ingliz tiliga oid bir nechta kitoblarni nashr etdi, bu kitoblarning muvaffaqiyati shundaki ularda texnik materiallarni qulay tarzda etkazish uchun turli xil grafikalar va qisqa insholardan foydalanilgan. [14] Kristal o'zining "Standart ingliz tili nima" nomli maqolasida yozishicha global miqyosda ingliz tili ikkiga bo'linadi va ular bir-biri bilan birlashadi, mahalliy shevalarda so'zlashuvchilar bir-birini tushunishlari vaqt o'tgani sari nisbatan qiyin bo'lib qoladi va shuning uchun u Jahon standartiga mos og'zaki ingliz tili deb ataydigan atamani muhumligini aytib o'tadi (shuningdek, Xalqaro ingliz tiliga qarang). [15]

O'zining 2004 yilda nashr etilgan ingliz tilining umumiy tarixi haqida hikoya qiladigan "Ingliz tilining hikoyalari" kitobida u til xilma-xilligi va odatda "nostandart" deb hisoblangan ingliz tilining navlariga nisbatan paydo bo'lgan muhimlilikni tasvirlaydi. [16] 2009-yilda u o'zining avtobiografik memuarini 'Routledge' nashriyoti tomonidan nashr etdi va uni"Just a Phrase I'm Going Through: My Life in Language" deb nomladi. Bu uning uchta ma'ruzasi jamlangan kitob bo'lib, kitobning DVD shakli bilan bir vaqtda chiqarilgan. [17] Uning “ Spell It Out: The Curious, Enthralling and Extraordinary Story of English Spelling” (2013) nomli kitobida ingliz tilidagi ba’zi so‘zlarni talaffuz qilish nima uchun qiyinligi tushuntirilgan. [18] Uning mantiqiy davomi bo'lgan kitobi “Makking a Point: The Pernickety Story of English Punctuation ” 2015-yilda 'Profile Books' (Buyuk Britaniya) va 'St. Martin’s Press' (AQSh) nashrlarida chop etilgan.

Kristalning hozirgi kundagi yangi tadqiqot sohasi - Internet tilshunosligi bo'lib, bu mavzu bo'yicha "Til va Internet" (2001) nomli kitobni nashr etdi. [19] Crystalning Txtng: The Gr8 Db8 (2008) kitobi matn tili va uning jamiyatga ko'rsatadigan ta'siriga qaratilgan. [20] [21]

2001 yildan 2006 yilgacha Kristal "Crystal Reference Systems Limited" kompaniyasi raisi bo'lib ishlagan, bu kompaniya esa manba kontenti, Internet qidiruvi va reklama texnologiyalari ta'minotchisi sifatida faoliyat olib boradi.. Kompaniyaning iSense va Sitescreen mahsulotlari patentlangan Global Data Modeliga asoslangan bo'lib, Kristal 1980-yillarning boshida ishlab chiqqan va 1990-yillarning oʻrtalarida Internetda foydalanish uchun moslashtirilgan murakkab semantik tarmoq boʻlgan . Bularga semantik maqsad texnologiyasi ('Add pepper media' (online marketing kompaniyasi) tomonidan iSense sifatida sotuvga olib chiqilgan) va brendni himoya qilish texnologiyasi ('Emediate ApS' tomonidan SiteScreen sifatida sotiladi) kiradi. [22] iSense texnologiyasi Buyuk Britaniya va Qo'shma Shtatlarda patent borasida kun mavzusi hisoblanadi. Kompaniya Ad Pepper Media NV tomonidan sotib olinganidan so'ng ham, u 2009 yilgacha kompaniyaning ilmiy-tadqiqot ishlari bo'yicha direktori lavozimida ishladi [23]

Kristal Holyhead monastirini vayron bo'lishdan qutqarish namoyishida muvaffaqiyatli qatnashib, Ucheldre markazining yaratilishiga sabab bo'ldi. [24]

Shekspir asarlari bilan bog'liqlik[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Ingliz tilining evolyutsiyasi bo'yicha mutaxassis sifatida u 2004 va 2005 yillarda Shakespeare's Globe(teatr) Shekspir spektaklini yaratishda ishtirok etgan, sababi o'sha paytda u Shekspir davridagi talaffuzga asoslangan " Asl talaffuz " nomli kitob ustida ishlayotgan edi va o'sha orqali aktyorlarga tegishli talaffuzni o'rgatgan. O'sha vaqtdan beri OPda ijro etilgan bir qancha boshqa Shekspir pyesalari, jumladan, "Yoz oqshomidagi tush", " Gamlet ", " Makbet ", " Perikl ", "Venetsiyalik savdogar" va " Genri V " kabi sahna asarlarida maslahatchi bo'lgan. [25]

Bibliografiya[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Kitoblar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  • Crystal, David and Quirk, Randolph (1964). Systems of Prosodic and Paralinguistic Features in English. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Crystal, David (1965). Linguistics, Language and Religion. London: Burns & Oates.
  • Crystal, David (1968). What is Linguistics?. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Crystal, David and Davy, Derek (1969). Investigating English Style. London: Longman.
  • Crystal, David and Boulton, W.F. (eds.) (1969). The English Language: Essays by Linguists and Men of Letters, Vol. 2 1858-1964. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (1969). Prosodic Systems and Intonation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (1971). Linguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David and Davy, Derek (1975). Advanced Conversational English. London: Longman.
  • Crystal, David (1975). The English Tone of Voice: Essays in Intonation, Prosody and Paralanguage. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Crystal, David, Fletcher, Paul and Garman, Michael (1976). The Grammatical Analysis of Language Disability: A Procedure for Assessment and Remediation. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Crystal, David (1976). Child Language, Learning and Linguistics. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Crystal, David (1979). Working with LARSP. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (1980). Eric Partridge in His Own Words. London: Deutsch.
  • Crystal, David (1980). Introduction to Language Pathology. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Crystal, David (1981). Clinical Linguistics. Vienna & New York: Springer.
  • Crystal, David (1981). Directions in Applied Linguistics. Academic Press.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (1982). Linguistic Controversies. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Crystal, David (1982). Profiling Linguistic Disability. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Crystal, David (1984). Who Cares About English Usage?. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David (1984). Linguistic Encounters with Language Handicap. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Crystal, David (1986). Listen to Your Child: A Parent's Guide to Children's Language. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David (1988). The English Language. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David (1991). Making Sense of English Usage. Edinburgh: Chambers
  • Crystal, David (1991). Language A to Z with David Crystal: Key Stage 3: Pupil's Book 1. London: Longman.
  • Crystal, David (1991). Language A to Z with David Crystal: Key Stage 4: Pupil's Book 2. London: Longman.
  • Crystal, David (1991). Language A to Z with David Crystal: Teacher's Book for Stages 3 and 4. London: Longman.
  • Crystal, David (1992). Introducing Linguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (1992). Nineties Knowledge. Edinburgh: Chambers.
  • Crystal, David (1997). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (1998). Language Play. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David and Crystal, Hilary (2000). Words On Words: Quotations About Language and Languages. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David (2000). Language Death. Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2001). Language and the Internet. Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2004). The Language Revolution. Cambridge: Polity Press
  • Crystal, David (2004). The Stories of English. London: Penguin / New York: Overlook Press.
  • Crystal, David and Crystal, Ben (2005). The Shakespeare Miscellany. London: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David (2005). Pronouncing Shakespeare: The Globe Experiment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2006). Words Words Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2006). By Hook or by Crook; A Journey in Search of English. London: HarperCollins. (Published in the US in 2009 as Walking English: A Journey in Search of Language)
  • Crystal, David (2006). As They Say in Zanzibar: Proverbial Wisdom from Around the World. London: HarperCollins.
  • Crystal, David (2006). The Fight for English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2006). How Language Works: How Babies Babble, Words Change Meaning, and Languages Live or Die. London: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David (2008). Txtng: The Gr8 Db8. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2008). Think on my Words: Exploring Shakespeare's Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2009). Just a Phrase I'm Going Through: My Life in Language. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Crystal, David (2009). John Bradburne on Love. Holyhead: Holy Island Press
  • Crystal, David (2010). A Little Book of Language. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2010). Begat: The King James Bible and the English Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Facchinetti, Roberta, Crystal, Crystal and Seidlhofer, Barbara (eds.) (2010). From International to Local English – And Back Again. Bern: Peter Lang.
  • Crystal, David (2010). Evolving English: One Language, Many Voices. An Illustrated History of the English Language. London: British Library.
  • Crystal, David (2011). Internet Linguistics: A Student Guide. London: Routledge.
  • Ball, Martin J, Crystal, David and Fletcher, Paul (eds.) (2011). Assessing Grammar: The Languages of LARSP. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  • Crystal, David (2011). The Story of English in 100 Words. London: Profile Books.
  • Crystal, David (2012). Spell It Out: The Singular Story of English Spelling. London: Profile Books.
  • Crystal, David and Crystal, Hilary (2013). Wordsmiths and Warriors: The English-Language Tourist's Guide to Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2014). Words in Time and Place: Exploring Language Through the Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Crystal, David and Crystal, Ben (2014). You Say Potato: A Book About Accents. London: Macmillan.
  • Crystal, David (2015). The Disappearing Dictionary: A Treasury of Lost English Dialect Words. London: Macmillan.
  • Crystal, David (2015). Making a Point: The Pernickety Story of English Punctuation. London: Profile Books.
  • Ball, Martin J, Crystal, David and Fletcher, Paul (eds.) (2016). Profiling Grammar: More Languages of LARSP. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  • Crystal, David (2016). The Unbelievable Hamlet Discovery. Holyhead: Crystal Books.
  • Crystal, David (2016). The Gift of the Gab: How Eloquence Works. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2017). Making Sense: The Glamorous Story of English Grammar. London: Profile Books.
  • Crystal, David (2017). The Story of Be: A Verb's-Eye View of the English Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2017). A Life Made of Words: the Poetry and Thought of John Bradburne. Holyhead: Crystal Books.
  • Crystal, David (2017). We Are Not Amused: Victorian Views on Pronunciation as Told in the Pages of Punch. Oxford: Bodleian Library Publishing.
  • Crystal, David (2018). Sounds Appealing: The Passionate Story of English Pronunciation. London: Profile Books.
  • Ball, Martin J, Fletcher, Paul and Crystal, David, eds. (2019). Grammatical Profiles: Further Languages of LARSP. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Malumot ishlari[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  • Crystal, David (1980). A First Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. London: Deutsch (Subsequent editions published by Blackwells as A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics)
  • Crystal, David (1987). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (1988). Rediscover Grammar. London: Longman.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (1992). The Cambridge Concise Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (1992). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Language and Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. (Subsequently, published by Penguin, with the 2nd ed. titled The Penguin Dictionary of Language)
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (1993). The Cambridge Paperback Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (1993). The Cambridge Factfinder. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (1994). The Cambridge Biographical Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 
  • Crystal, David (1996). Discover Grammar. London: Longman.
  • Crystal, David (1996). The Cambridge Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (2002). The New Penguin Encyclopedia. London: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David and Crystal, Ben (2002). Shakespeare's Words: A Glossary and Language Companion. London: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (2003). The Penguin Concise Encyclopedia. London: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (2003). The New Penguin Factfinder. London: Penguin.
  • Crystal, David (2004). Making Sense of Grammar. London: Pearson Longman.
  • Crystal, David (2004). A Glossary of Netspeak and Textspeak. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
  • Crystal, David (2004). The Penguin Book of Facts. London: Penguin.
  • The Penguin Encyclopedia, 2nd David Crystal: , 2004. ISBN 0-140-51543-7. 
  • Crystal, David (2005). Penguin Pocket Spelling Dictionary. London: Penguin Reference.
  • Crystal, David (2005). Dr Johnson's Dictionary: an Anthology. London: Penguin Classics.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (2005). The Penguin Concise Encyclopedia. London: Penguin Reference.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (2005). Pocket Quotations. London: Penguin Reference.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (2005). Pocket Facts. London: Penguin Reference.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (2006). Penguin Pocket On This Day. London: Penguin Reference.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (2006). Penguin Pocket Kings and Queens. London: Penguin Reference.
  • Crystal, David (ed.) (2006). Penguin Pocket Famous People. London: Penguin Reference.
  • Fowler, H.W., Crystal, David (ed.) (2009). Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Reprint of 1926 1st ed.)
  • Crystal, David and Crystal, Ben (2015). Oxford Illustrated Shakespeare Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2016). The Oxford Dictionary of Original Shakespearean Pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tanqidiy tadqiqotlar va sharhlar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  • Morrisby, Edwin (Oct 1995). "A gallimaufry of Englishes". Quadrant 39 (10): 84–86.  Review of The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language.

Manbalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  1. „All About...The Author“. Cambridge University Press. 19-mart 2006-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil.
  2. Crace. „Interview: John Crace meets language guru David Crystal“. The Guardian (15-sentabr 2008-yil).
  3. Lo Dico. „Watch what you're saying!: Linguist David Crystal on Twitter, texting and our native tongue“. The Independent (14-mart 2010-yil). Qaraldi: 21-may 2015-yil.
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 „All About...The Author“. Cambridge University Press. 19-mart 2006-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil. "All About...The Author". Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 19 March 2006. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  5. „Staff Profile of Professor David Crystal“. Prifysgol Bangor University. 17-noyabr 2012-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil.
  6. „David Crystal profile“. The Guardian. Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil.
  7. „Biography“. Crystal Reference (2005). 26-oktabr 2007-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 15-oktabr 2007-yil.
  8. „Biography“. Crystal Reference (2005). 26-oktabr 2007-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 15-oktabr 2007-yil. "Biography". Crystal Reference. 2005. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2007.
  9. Hazel Bell. „David Crystal“. Journal of Scholarly Publishing (1-oktabr 1999-yil). 29-sentabr 2007-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 15-oktabr 2007-yil.
  10. „CIEP Honorary Members“. Qaraldi: 3-mart 2020-yil.
  11. Marks. „Innovation: Smarter books aim to win back the kids“. new Scientist (25-iyun 2010-yil). Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil.
  12. „Babel The Language Magazine“. babelzine.com. Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil.
  13. „David Crystal Books & Articles“. www.davidcrystal.com. Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil.
  14. „David Crystal: Books in chronological order“. Crystal Reference (2005). 14-may 2008-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi.
  15. „What Is Standard English“. davidcrystal.com. Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil.
  16. Crystal, David. The Stories of English. Penguin Books, 2004. ISBN 0 713 99752 4. 
  17. Balik. „Just A Phrase I'm Going Through : My Life in Language David Crystal review“. PopMatters (29-sentabr 2009-yil). Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil.
  18. Leith. „Spell It Out by David Crystal – review“. The Guardian (14-sentabr 2012-yil). Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil.
  19. Crystal. „Weaving a Web of linguistic diversity“. The Guardian (25-yanvar 2001-yil). Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil.
  20. The Times Review, Txtng: The Gr8 Db8
  21. Gr8 db8r takes on linguistic luddites, The Guardian.
  22. „Executive Profile David Crystal O.B.E“. Bloomberg Business. Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil.
  23. „Crystal Semantics: About Us“. Qaraldi: 15-oktabr 2007-yil.
  24. „The Ucheldre Story“. www.ucheldre.org. Qaraldi: 22-may 2015-yil.
  25. Robert Siegel, "Shakespeare's Tongue, Heard at the Globe", All Things Considered (NPR), 19 July 2005. Retrieved 13 September 2013.