Gʻarbiy Afrikadagi Ebola virusi epidemiyasi

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Ebola virusi epidemiyasining soddalashtirilgan xaritasi

Gʻarbiy Afrikadagi Ebola virusi epidemiyasi (2013–2016) — Ebola gemorragik isitmasining tarixdagi eng yirik epidemiyasi. Epidemiya mintaqada, xususan, Gvineya, Liberiya hamda Syerra-Leoneda koʻplab odam halok boʻlishiga hamda ijtimoiy-iqtisodiy qiyinchiliklarga sabab boʻldi. Ilk holatlar 2013-yil dekabrda Gvineyada qayd etildi, keyinroq qoʻshni Liberiya hamda Syerra-Leonega tarqaldi.[1] Epidemiya kichikroq koʻlamda boshqa hududlarga ham yoyildi. Virusni umumiy hisobda 28,616 nafar kishi yuqtirdi, ularning 11,310 nafari vafot edi. Yaʼni, virusni yuqtirganlarning 40% halok boʻldi.[2]

Virus ozroq koʻlamda Nigeriya hamda Maliga ham tarqaldi.[3][4] Senegal,[5] Buyuk Britaniya hamda Italiyada ham oz sonli holat qayd etildi.[6][7] AQSh va Ispaniyada kasallikning bemorlardan tibbiy xodimlarga yuqish holatlari kuzatildi, ammo bu mamlakatlarda virus tarqalishi oldi olindi.[8][9] Virusni yuqtirishlar soni 2014-yilning oktabrida eng yuqori koʻrsatkichga yetdi va keng koʻlamli xalqaro kurash natijasida asta-sekin ozaya boshladi. 2016-yilning 8-mayida Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti hamda virus tarqalgan davlatlar hukumatlari umumiy hisobda 28,646 nafar odam virusni yuqtirgani, ularning 11,323 nafari halok boʻlgani taxmin qilinayotganini maʼlum qildi.[10] (39.5%). Ammo Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti aslida kasallikni yuqtirganlar soni bunda ancha yuqori boʻlganiga ishonadi.[11]

2014-yilning 8-avgustida epidemiya xalqaro darajadagi favqulodda holat deb eʼlon qilindi.[12] 2016-yilning 29-martida Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti favqulodda vaziyatni bekor qildi.[13][14][15] Buning ortidan virusni yuqtirish holatlari kuzatildi; soʻnggi marta 2016-yilning 9-iyunida virusni yuqtirish holatlari kuzatildi. Bundan 42 kun oldin — 2016-yilning 28-aprelida Monroviyada soʻnggi bemor sinovi u tuzalganini koʻrsatgan edi.[16]

Virusni yuqtirgan taqriban 17,000 odam tirik qoldi. Ularning aksarida post-Ebola sindromi deb ataluvchi simptomlar kuzatildi. Ularning ayrimlari bir necha oy yoki yil davomida davolanishga majbur boʻldi. Virusning tuzalgan shaxs tanasida bir necha oy yoki yil „yashirinib“ olib, soʻngra uning oʻzida yoki jinsiy sherigida qayta faollashishi xavotirga sabab boʻldi.[17] 2016-yilning dekabrida Jahon sogʻliqni tashkiloti rVSV-ZEBOV vaksinasining ikki yil davom etgan sinovi virusning Gʻarbiy Afrikada tarqalgan variantidan samarali himoya qila olishini koʻrsatganini eʼlon qildi. Vaksina samarali deb topildi va ayni damda virusdan himoyalanish uchun koʻrish mumkin boʻlgan yagona choradir; shuning uchun ham vaksinaning 300 000 dozalik zaxirasi tayyorlandi.[18][19] 2019-yilda rVSV-ZEBOV vaksinasidan foydalanish uchun rasmiy ruxsat berildi.[20][21]

Yuqtirganlar va halok boʻlganlar soni[tahrir]

Mamlakat Virus yuqtirganlar soni Vafot etganlar soni Soʻnggi marta Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti tomonidan 2016-yilning 9-iyunida yangilangan
Liberiya 10,675 4,809 Epidemiya 2016-yil 9-iyunda tugagan [22]
Syerra-Leone 14,124 3,956 Epidemiya 2016-yil 17-martda tugagan[23]
Gvineya 3,811 2,543 Epidemiya 2016-yil 1-iyunda tugagan[24]
Nigeriya 20 8 Epidemiya 2014-yil 19-oktabrda tugagan[25][26]
Mali 8 6 Epidemiya 2015-yil 18-yanvarda tugagan[27]
AQSh 4 1 Epidemiya 2014-yil 21-dekabrda tugagan[28]
Italiya 1 0 Epidemiya 2015-yil 20-iyulda tugagan[29]
Buyuk Britaniya 1 0 Epidemiya 2015-yil 10-martda tugagan[30]
Senegal 1 0 Epidemiya 2014-yil 17-oktabrda tugagan 17[25]
Ispaniya 1 0 Epidemiya 2014-yil 2-dekabrda tugagan[31]
Umumiy hisob 28,646 11,323 2016-yilning 8-mayidagi holat boʻyicha

Manbalar[tahrir]

  1. WHO Ebola Response Team (23 September 2014). Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa — The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections. 23 September 2014.
  2. Wappes, Jim. "US health worker monitored as DRC Ebola nears 600 cases" (en). CIDRAP. http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2018/12/us-health-worker-monitored-drc-ebola-nears-600-cases. Qaraldi: 23 January 2019. 
  3. (en) End of Ebola transmission in Guinea (Report). WHO Regional Office for Africa. https://afro.who.int/news/end-ebola-transmission-guinea. Qaraldi: 30 October 2018. 
  4. "Update: Mali confirms new case of Ebola, locks down Bamako clinic". Reuters. 12 November 2014. http://in.reuters.com/article/2014/11/12/health-ebola-mali-idINL6N0T15CN20141112. Qaraldi: 15 November 2014. 
  5. (PDF) Ebola response roadmap situation report update (Report). WHO. 7 November 2014. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/137592/1/roadmapsitrep_7Nov2014_eng.pdf?ua=1. Qaraldi: 7 November 2014. 
  6. (PDF) Ebola response roadmap situation report (Report). WHO. 31 December 2014. http://apps.who.int/ebolaweb/sitreps/20141231/20141231.pdf. Qaraldi: 1 January 2015. "The reported case fatality rate in the three intense-transmission countries among all cases for whom a definitive outcome is known is 71%." 
  7. Ebola virus disease – Italy. WHO. 28 October 2016.
  8. "Una enfermera que atendió al misionero fallecido García Viejo, contagiada de ébola" (Spanish). El Mundo. 6 October 2014. http://www.elmundo.es/madrid/2014/10/06/5432bb62e2704e347a8b4577.html?a=a733fe5654cd56f5e1d50d769a9b4204&t=1412616936. Qaraldi: 6 October 2014. 
  9. (PDF) Ebola outbreak situation report (Report). WHO. 8 October 2014. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/136020/1/roadmapsitrep_8Oct2014_eng.pdf?ua=1. Qaraldi: 15 October 2014. 
  10. Ebola virus disease (Report). World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease. Qaraldi: 6 June 2019. 
  11. Meltzer, Martin I.; Atkins, Charisma Y.; Santibanez, Scott et al. (26 September 2014). "Estimating the future number of cases in the Ebola epidemic – Liberia and Sierra Leone, 2014–2015". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su63e0923a1.htm. 
  12. Statement on the 1st meeting of the IHR Emergency Committee on the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa (Report). WHO. https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2014/ebola-20140808/en/. Qaraldi: 13 January 2019. 
  13. (en-GB) WHO Director-General briefs media on outcome of Ebola Emergency Committee (Report). WHO. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2016/ihr-emergency-committee-ebola/en/. Qaraldi: 2 April 2016. 
  14. Interim advice on the sexual transmission of the Ebola virus disease (Report). WHO. http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/rtis/ebola-virus-semen/en/. Qaraldi: 28 October 2016. 
  15. WHO Director-General addresses the Executive Board (Report). WHO. http://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2016/executive-board-138/en/. Qaraldi: 27 January 2016. 
  16. WHO (10 June 2016). Situation Report Ebola (Report). WHO. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/208883/1/ebolasitrep_10Jun2016_eng.pdf. Qaraldi: 11 November 2016. 
  17. Yasmin, Seema (29 February 2016). "Why Ebola Survivors Struggle with New Symptoms". Scientific American. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-ebola-survivors-struggle-with-new-symptoms/. Qaraldi: 9 September 2016. 
  18. Geisbert, Thomas W. (December 2016). "First Ebola virus vaccine to protect human beings?". The Lancet 389 (10068): 479–480. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32618-6. PMID 28017402. 
  19. "Ebola vaccine results are encouraging – but preliminary". PBS. December 23, 2016. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/ebola-vaccine-results-encouraging-preliminary/. 
  20. Ervebo. EMA (12 December 2019). 2 February 2020.
  21. First FDA-approved vaccine for the prevention of Ebola virus disease, marking a critical milestone in public health preparedness and response. FDA (19 December 2019). 2 February 2020.
  22. WHO declares Liberia free of active Ebola virus transmission. Thomson Reuters Foundation (9 June 2016). 16 October 2016.
  23. Ebola Situation Report – 16 March 2016 | Ebola. World Health Organization. 28 October 2016.
  24. End of Ebola transmission in Guinea. WHO Regional Office for Africa (2015). 9 June 2016.
  25. 25,0 25,1 (PDF) Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report (Report). WHO. 22 October 2014. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/137091/1/roadmapsitrep22Oct2014_eng.pdf. Qaraldi: 22 October 2014. 
  26. Liberia Ebola SitRep no. 157 (Report). Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. 24 October 2014. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. http://webarchive.loc.gov/all/20141204105311/http://www.mohsw.gov.lr/documents/SITREP%20162%20Oct%2024th%202014_1.pdf. Qaraldi: 24 October 2014. 
  27. Ebola situation report (PDF). World Health Organization (21 January 2015). 22 January 2015.
  28. Ebola response roadmap – Situation report 24 December 2014. World Health Organization (26 December 2014). 29 December 2014.
  29. Ebola situation report. World Health Organization (22 July 2015).
  30. United Kingdom is declared free of Ebola virus disease (Report). WHO Europe. http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/emergencies/pages/news/news/2015/03/united-kingdom-is-declared-free-of-ebola-virus-disease. Qaraldi: 11 March 2015. 
  31. Situation summary. World Health Organization (5 December 2014). 6 December 2014.