Amerikaliklar

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Amerikaliklar — AQSh aholisining koʻpchilik qismini tashkil etadigan xalq. Amerikaliklar 194,2 million kishidan ortiq (1992), jumladan AQShda 193 mln. kishi. Kanadada 320 ming kishi, Meksikada 135 ming kishi, Buyuk Britaniyada 120 ming kishi yashaydi. Amerikaliklar millati 17-asrning boshlarida Angliyaning Shimoliy Amerikadagi mustamlakasiga Yevropadan koʻchib kelgan kishilar (ingliz, shotland, irland, golland, fransuz, ispan va boshqalar)dan tashkil topgan. Amerikaliklar millati asosan Shimoliy Amerikada mustaqillik uchun ku-rash (1775-1783) arafasida va shu kurash mobaynida shakllangan. AQShga muhojir boʻlib kelgan turli-tuman etnik guruhlar assimilyatsiya boʻlib, Amerikaliklar qiyofasiga, tili va madaniya-tiga oʻz hissalarini qoʻsha bordilar. 19-asr oʻrtalarida, fuqarolar urushi (1861-1865) arafasida AQShga koʻp irland va nemislar keldi. 19-asrning oxirlarida esa Gʻarbiy Yevropa bilan bir qatorda Sharqiy va Janubiy Yevropadan, Osiyodan muhojirlarning kela boshlashi amerikaliklarning etnik xilma-xilligini kuchaytirdi. Birinchi jahon urushi davrida (1914-1918 yillarda) Meksikadan, Lotin Amerika-sining boshqa mamlakatlaridan ham juda koʻp muhojirlar keldi. Birinchi jahon urushidan keyin chet ellardan koʻchib kelish qonuniy cheklab qoʻyilgach, kelgindilar soni kamaya boshladi. Dindorlari asosan protestantlar, katoliklar. Amerikaliklar millati nisbatan yosh. Etnik jihatdan qoʻshilish jarayoni tugʻallanganicha yoʻq. Koʻpgina milliy guruh (polyak, italyan va boshqalar)lar oʻz mamlakatlari madaniyatlarini qisman saqlab qolganlar, lekin ingliz tilida soʻzlashadilar. Amerikalik oʻzbeklar ham til, urf-odat, madaniyatlarini saqdab qolganlar. Amerikaliklar ingliz tilining amerikan shevasida soʻzlashadi. Shartli ravishda baʼzan Amerika qitʼasida yashovchilarning hammasini amerikaliklar deb ataydilar.[1]

Manbalar[tahrir]

  1. Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics, 6th Edition The Essentials. CQ Press, January 15, 2013. — s. 31–33. ISBN 978-1-4522-4003-9. 6-Yanvar 2015-yilda qaraldi. „Who Is An American? Native-born and naturalized citizens“ 
    Shklar, Judith N. American Citizenship: The Quest for Inclusion, The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Harvard University Press, 1991. — s. 3–4. ISBN 9780674022164. 17-Dekabr 2012-yilda qaraldi. 
    Slotkin, Richard (2001). "Unit Pride: Ethnic Platoons and the Myths of American Nationality". American Literary History (Oxford University Press) 13 (3): 469–498. doi:10.1093/alh/13.3.469. http://wesscholar.wesleyan.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1028&context=div2facpubs. Qaraldi: December 17, 2012. "But it also expresses a myth of American nationality that remains vital in our political and cultural life: the idealized self-image of a multiethnic, multiracial democracy, hospitable to differences but united by a common sense of national belonging." 
    European Citizenship: Between National Legacies and Postnational Projects. Oxford University Press, 2001. — s. 25–26. ISBN 9780199241200. 1-Fevral 2013-yilda qaraldi. „In inter-state relations, the American nation state presents its members as a monistic political body-despite ethnic and national groups in the interior.“ 
    Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press, 1982. — s. 62. ISBN 9780674157262. 1-Fevral 2013-yilda qaraldi. „To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American.“ 
    The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience. Russell Sage Foundation, November 4, 1999. — s. 300. ISBN 978-1-61044-289-3. 
    David Halle America's Working Man: Work, Home, and Politics Among Blue Collar Property Owners. University of Chicago Press, July 15, 1987. — s. 233. ISBN 978-0-226-31366-5. „The first, and central, way involves the view that Americans are all those persons born within the boundaries of the United States or admitted to citizenship by the government.“ 

Adabiyotlar[tahrir]

  • OʻzME. Birinchi jild. Toshkent, 2000-yil