Yordam:IPAc-en

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Andoza:IPA key Vikipediya boʻylab soʻzlarning talaffuzi Xalqaro fonetik alifbo ( IPA ) orqali koʻrsatilgan. Quyidagi jadvallarda inglizcha so'zlar va talaffuzlar uchun ishlatiladigan IPA belgilari ro'yxati keltirilgan. E'tibor bering, ushbu belgilarning bir nechtasi Vikipediyaga xos bo'lgan va lug'atlarda qo'llaniladiganidan farq qiladigan tarzda qo'llaniladi.

Agar IPA belgilari brauzeringiz tomonidan to'g'ri ko'rsatilmasa, quyidagi havolalarga qarang .

Agar siz ushbu kalit yordamida {{IPAc-en}} shablonidan foydalangan holda formatlanishi kerak. Shablon talaffuzdagi har bir belgi uchun maslahatlar beradi. Ko'rsatmalar uchun shablon sahifasiga qarang.

 

Kalit (rus versiyadan olingan)[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Undosh tovushlar
МФА Talaffuzning dialekt variantlari Misollar
b but, web
d ɾ do, odd
ð this, breathe, father
ʤ gin, joy, edge
f fool, enough, leaf, photo
ɡ go, get, beg
h ɦ, ç ham, ahead
j yes, hallelujah
k cat, kill, skin, queen, thick
l l, ɫ, ɤ, w, o, ʊ, ʟ left, bell
m ɱ man, ham
n no, tin
ŋ ringer, sing, sink
ŋɡ finger
θ θ, t̪ thing, teeth
p , p pen, spin, tip
ɹ ɹʷ, ɹ, ɾ, ɻ, ʋ run, very
s see, city, pass
ʃ she, sure, emotion, leash, session
t , ɾ, ʔ two, sting, bet
t͡ʃʰ chair, nature, teach
v voice, have
w we
ʍ what[1]
z zoo, rose
ʒ pleasure, vision, beige[2]
Согласные с придыханием
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[3]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/,
Hawaii /həˈwaɪʔiː/[4]
Unli tovushlar
МФА Misollar Unli tovushlar эризованные
æ bad, pat ær barrow, marry
ɑː balm, father, pa ɑr bar, mar
ɒ bod, pot, cot[5] ɒr moral, forage
ɔː bawd, paw, caught ɔr born, for
əʊ beau, hoe, poke[6] ɔər boar, four, more
ʊ good, foot, put ʊər boor, moor
booed, food
ʌ bud, butt ʌr hurry, Murray
ɜr bird, myrrh, furry
ɛ bed, pet ɛr berry, merry
bay, hey, fate ɛər bear, mare, Mary
ɪ bid, pit ɪr mirror
i happy, city
ɪər beer, mere
bead, peat
Diftonglar Безударные и редуцированные гласные
аɪ buy, high, ride, write ə Rosa’s, above
bough, how, pout əl bottle
ɔɪ boy, hoy əm rhythm
juː beauty, hue, pew, dew ən button
Boʻgʻinga ajratish ər runner, mercer
. moai /ˈmoʊ.аɪ/ ɨ roses, business
Urgʻu
МФА Misollar
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntəˈneɪʃən/
ˌ

Kalit[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Agar siz izlayotgan IPA belgisi boʻlsa, uni bu yerda koʻrmaysiz, Yordam:IPA ga qarang, bu toʻliqroq roʻyxatdir. Ushbu sahifadagi tovushlarning barcha imlolari roʻyxatini koʻrish uchun English orthography § Ovoz va imlo moslashuvlari . Imloni talaffuzga o'tkazish bo'yicha yordam olish uchun English orthography § Imlo-tovush yozishmalar .

Ikki xil belgi uchun misol sifatida keltirilgan so'zlar sizga bir xil bo'lishi mumkin. Misol uchun, siz cot va caught ni bir xil talaffuz qilishingiz mumkin, do (qil) va dew (shudring) yoki marry (turmushga chiq) va merry (xursand bo'ling) . Bu ko'pincha dialektlarning xilma-xilligi tufayli sodir bo'ladi (bizning maqolalarimizga qarang: Ingliz tili fonologiyasi va ingliz dialektlari uchun xalqaro fonetik alifbolar jadvali ). Agar shunday bo'lsa, siz ushbu belgilarni boshqa so'zlar uchun ham bir xil talaffuz qilasiz. [1] Bu barcha soʻzlar uchun toʻgʻri boʻladimi yoki tovushlar bir xil kontekstda kelganda, birlashishga bogʻliq. [7] Izohlar ushbu holatlarning ba'zilarini tushuntiradi.

Consonants
IPA Examples
b buy, cab
d dye, cad, ladder[8]
dj dew[9]
giant, badge
ð thy, breathe, father
f find, leaf
ɡ guy, bag
h high, ahead
hw whine[10]
j[11] yes, hallelujah
k kind, sky, crack
l Andoza:Not a typo[12]
lj lute[9]
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
nj new[9]
ŋ sang, sink, singer
p Andoza:Not a typo
r[13] rye, try, very
s sigh, mass
sj consume[9]
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t Andoza:Not a typo[8]
tj tune[9]
China, catch
θ thigh, path
θj enthuse[9]
v Andoza:Not a typo
w wine, swine
z zoo, has
zj Zeus[9]
ʒ pleasure, beige[14]
 
Marginal segments
IPA Examples
x loch, Chanukah[15]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʔʌʔoʊ/
ɒ̃ bon vivant[16]
æ̃ fin de siècle[16]
ɜː Möbius (UK only)[17]
Vowels
Strong vowels ...followed by R[18]
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ɑː Andoza:Sc2, bra ɑːr Andoza:Sc2
ɒ Andoza:Sc2, blockade[19] ɒr moral[20]
æ Andoza:Sc2, tattoo, sang[21] ær marry[22]
Andoza:Sc2, pie[23] aɪər hire[24]
Andoza:Sc2, how[23] aʊər flour[24]
ɛ Andoza:Sc2, prestige, length[25] ɛr merry[22]
Andoza:Sc2 ɛər Andoza:Sc2, Mary[22][26]
ɪ Andoza:Sc2, historic, sing[27] ɪr mirror
Andoza:Sc2, pedigree, idea[28] ɪər Andoza:Sc2, serious[26]
Andoza:Sc2[29][27] ɔːr Andoza:Sc2, hoarse[30]
ɔː Andoza:Sc2[31] Andoza:Sc2, horse[30]
ɔɪ Andoza:Sc2 ɔɪər coir[24]
ʊ Andoza:Sc2 ʊr courier
Andoza:Sc2, cruel[28] ʊər tour, Andoza:Sc2 (/ˈkjʊər/)[32][26]
ʌ Andoza:Sc2, untidy, trustee, sung[33][34] ɜːr Andoza:Sc2, blurry, urbane, foreword[35]
ʌr hurry[36]
Weak vowels
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ə Andoza:Sc2, abbot, bazaar ər Andoza:Sc2, forward, history[37]
ɪ rabbit, bizarre, Latin[27][38] motto, retroactive, follower[27][39]
i Andoza:Sc2, mediocre[40] California[41]
u fruition[39][40] influence[42]
Syllabic consonants[37]
IPA Examples IPA Examples
əl bottle (either [əl] or [l̩]) ən button (either [ən] or [n̩])
əm rhythm (either [əm] or [m̩])
 
Stress[43] Syllabification
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntəˈneɪʃən/ . /ˈhaɪər/ hire, /ˈhaɪ.ər/ higher[44]

/ˈtæks.peɪər/ taxpayer
ˌ
  • Ichidagi so'zlar  standart leksik to'plamlardir . Bu erda barcha to'plamlar ishlatilmaydi. Xususan, leksik to‘plamdagi so‘zlarni chiqarib tashladik  va , ikkita transkripsiya berilishi mumkin, birinchisi /ɑː/ yoki /æ/, ikkinchisi /ɒ/ yoki /ɔː/ .
  • Uzunlik belgisi ⟨:》 u bilan transkripsiya qilingan unlilar unsizlarga qaraganda har doim uzunroq ekanligini anglatmaydi. Birinchi guruhdagi unlilar urg‘usiz, undan keyin jarangsiz undosh yoki ko‘p bo‘g‘inli so‘zda boshqa muhitlarda ikkinchisiga qaraganda tez-tez qisqaroq bo‘ladi (qarang: Clipping (phonetics) § Inglizcha ).

Dialektning xilma-xilligi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  Bu kalit umumiy amerikacha, qabul qilingan talaffuz (RP) va koʻp darajada Avstraliya, Kanada, Irland (jumladan, Ulster ), Yangi Zelandiya, Shotlandiya, Janubiy Afrika va Uels talaffuzlariga mos keladigan diafonemalar, nutq tovushlarining abstraksiyalarini ifodalaydi. Shuning uchun, bu yerda ko'rsatilgan barcha farqlar ma'lum bir dialektga tegishli emas:

  • Andoza:Angbr IPA does not represent a phoneme but a variation between /iː/ and /ɪ/ in unstressed positions. Speakers of dialects with happy tensing (Australian English, General American, modern RP) should read it as an unstressed /iː/, whereas speakers of other dialects (e.g. some Northern England English) should treat it the same as /ɪ/. In Scotland, this vowel can be considered the same as the short allophone of /eɪ/, as in take. Before /ə/ within the same word, another possible pronunciation is /j/ as in yet.
  • Many speakers of American and Canadian English pronounce cot /ˈkɒt/ and caught /ˈkɔːt/ the same.[lower-alpha 10] You may simply ignore the difference between the symbols /ɒ/ and /ɔː/, just as you ignore the distinction between the written vowels o and au when pronouncing them.
  • Speakers of rhotic dialects (Irish English, North American English, Scottish English) do not distinguish between the vowels of near /ˈnɪər/, cure /ˈkjʊər/ and square /ˈskwɛər/ on the one hand and freerunning /ˈfriːrʌnɪŋ/, Q-rating /ˈkjuːreɪtɪŋ/ and dayroom /ˈdeɪruːm/ on the other. If you speak such a dialect, read /ɪər, ʊər, ɛər/ as /iːr, uːr, eɪr/.
  • In Northern Ireland, Scotland and many North American dialects the distinction between /ʊr/ as in courier and the aforementioned /ʊər/ and /uːr/ does not exist. If you speak such a dialect, ignore the difference between /ʊr/, /ʊər/ and /uːr/.
    • In Northern Ireland and Scotland this merger occurs in all environments, which means that foot /ˈfʊt/ and goose /ˈɡuːs/ also have the same vowel.[lower-alpha 11][lower-alpha 12] If you speak such a dialect, ignore the difference between /ʊ/ and /uː/ in all contexts.
    • In North America, the /ʊr/ of courier and the /ʊər/ of cure may instead merge with /ɔːr/ as in north or /ɜːr/ as in nurse. No such merger is possible in the case of the sequence which we transcribe as /uːr/ as there is an implied morpheme boundary after the length mark.
    • In North American dialects that do not distinguish between /ʊr/, /ʊər/ and /uːr/ there is also no distinction between the /ɪr/ of mirror and the aforementioned /ɪər/ and /iːr/. If you speak such a dialect, ignore the difference between /ɪr/, /ɪər/ and /iːr/.
    • In many North American dialects there is also no distinction between the vowels in merry /ˈmɛri/, Mary /ˈmɛəri/ and marry /ˈmæri/. If you speak such a dialect, ignore the difference between /ɛr/, /ɛər/ and /ær/. Some speakers keep marry and/or merry separate from the rest, but in the General American accent all three vowels are the same and may not be distinct from /eɪr/ as in dayroom /ˈdeɪruːm/.
    • In rhotic North American English there is no distinction between the vowels in nurse /ˈnɜːrs/ and letter /ˈlɛtər/. If you speak such a dialect, read /ɜːr/ as /ər/. The /ʌr/ of hurry often joins this neutralization; if you have it in your speech, read /ɜːr/, /ər/ and /ʌr/ as /ər/.
  • Some speakers from Northern England do not distinguish the vowel of square /ˈskwɛər/ and nurse /ˈnɜːrs/.[lower-alpha 13] If you speak such a dialect, ignore the difference between the symbols /ɛər/ and /ɜːr/.
  • In New Zealand English, the vowels of kit /ˈkɪt/ and focus /ˈfoʊkəs/ have the same schwa-like quality.[lower-alpha 14][lower-alpha 15] If you are from New Zealand, ignore the difference between the symbols /ɪ/ and /ə/.
  • In contemporary New Zealand English and some other dialects, the vowels of near /ˈnɪər/ and square /ˈskwɛər/ are not distinguished.[lower-alpha 16] If you speak such a dialect, ignore the difference between the symbols /ɪər/ and /ɛər/.
  • In Northern England English and some varieties of Irish and Welsh English, the vowels of foot /ˈfʊt/ and strut /ˈstrʌt/ are not distinguished.[lower-alpha 17] If you speak such a dialect, ignore the difference between the symbols /ʊ/ and /ʌ/.
  • In Welsh English and some other dialects, the vowels of unorthodoxy /ʌnˈɔːrθədɒksi/ and an orthodoxy /ən ˈɔːrθədɒksi/ are not distinguished.[lower-alpha 18] If you speak such a dialect, ignore the difference between the symbols /ʌ/ and /ə/.
  • Depending on the dialect, vowels can be subject to various mergers before /l/, so that e.g. fill /ˈfɪl/ and feel /ˈfiːl/ or pull /ˈpʊl/ and pool /ˈpuːl/ may not be distinguished. L-vocalization may trigger even more mergers, so that e.g. cord /ˈkɔːrd/ and called /ˈkɔːld/ may be homophonous as /ˈkɔːd/ in non-rhotic dialects of South East England. See English-language vowel changes before historic /l/ for more information.
  • In many dialects, /r/ occurs only before a vowel; if you speak such a dialect, simply ignore /r/ in the pronunciation guides where you would not pronounce it, as in cart /kɑːrt/.
  • In other dialects, /j/ (yes) cannot occur after /t, d, n/, etc., within the same syllable; if you speak such a dialect, then ignore the /j/ in transcriptions such as new /njuː/. For example, New York is transcribed /njuː ˈjɔːrk/. For most people from England and for some New Yorkers, the /r/ in /jɔːrk/ is not pronounced; for most people from the United States, including some New Yorkers, the /j/ in /njuː/ is not pronounced and may be ignored. (See yod-dropping.)

Boshqa tomondan, siz qilishingiz mumkin bo'lgan, lekin bu kalit kodlamaydigan ba'zi farqlar ham mavjud, chunki ular Vikipediya maqolalari uchun manba sifatida ishlatiladigan lug'atlarda kamdan-kam aks etadi:

  • Kit va bit unlilari Janubiy Afrikada ajralib turadi. [lower-alpha 19] /ɪ/ boʻgʻinlarda /ɪ/, urgʻusiz boʻgʻinlarda /ɪ/ yoki /ə/ shaklida transkripsiya qilinadi.
  • Ba'zi Shotlandiya va Irlandiya ingliz tillarida saqlanib qolgan, ammo boshqa joylarda yo'qolgan fir (archa), fur (mo'yna) va fern (paporotnik) unlilari o'rtasidagi farq. [lower-alpha 20] /ɜːr/ sifatida transkripsiya qilingan.
  • North (Shimoliy) va force (kuch) unlilari Shotlandiya ingliz, irland ingliz va ozchilik amerikalik so'zlashuvchilar tomonidan ajralib turadi. [lower-alpha 20] /ɔːr/ sifatida transkripsiya qilingan.
  • Pause (Pauza) va paws (panjalar) unlilari Kokneyda va ba'zi Estuariyalik ingliz tilida so'zlashuvchilar tomonidan ajralib turadi. [lower-alpha 21] Ularning ikkalasi ham matnga aylantiradi deb /ɔː/ imlo ⟩ va o'z ichiga olmaydi, qachon /ɔːr/ yoki /ʊər/ u qachon (so'z qarab).
  • Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari, ayrim qismlari ajralib manning (xodimlar) va Manning undoshlar, (qarang <span about="#mwt577" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;IPA&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./Andoza:IPA&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;/æ/&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwA9o" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">/æ/</span> maxalliy ). /æ/ sifatida transkripsiya qilinadi.
  • Ingliz, uels va Nyufaundlend dialektlarida uchraydigan pain (og'riq) va pane unlilari o'rtasidagi farq. /eɪ/ sifatida transkripsiya qilinadi.
  • Holy (Muqaddas) va wholly (to'liq) Kokni va ko'plab Estuariy ingliz tilida so'zlashuvchilarda joylashgan unlilar o'rtasidagi farq. [lower-alpha 22] /oʊ/ sifatida transkripsiya qilingan.
  • Har qanday allofonik farqlar, masalan:
    • Bad va lad unlilari Avstraliyaning ko'p joylarida ajralib turadi. /æ/ sifatida transkripsiya qilinadi.
    • Spider (O'rgimchak) va spied uni unlilari Shotlandiyaning ko'p joylarida, [lower-alpha 23] va Shimoliy Amerikaning ko'plab qismlarida ajralib turadi. /aɪ/ sifatida transkripsiya qilinadi.
    • Rider (Chavandoz) va writer (yozuvchi)ning unlilari Kanadaning aksariyat qismlarida va Qo'shma Shtatlarning ko'p qismlarida ajralib turadi. /aɪ/ sifatida transkripsiya qilinadi.
    • Powder (Kukun) va pouter unlilari Kanadaning aksariyat qismlarida va Qo'shma Shtatlarning ba'zi qismlarida ajralib turadi. /aʊ/ sifatida transkripsiya qilinadi.
    • Knife /ˈnaɪf/ va knives /ˈnaɪvz/ unli uzunligi (shu jumladan, Shotlandiya unlilarining uzunligi qoidasi ). /ɛ/ vs. /ɛər/ va /ə/ va /ɜːr/ ɜːr/ kabi juftlarni o'z ichiga olgan fonemik unli uzunligi ham aniq belgilanmagan. /i/ va /u/ fonemalarni ifodalamaydi; yuqoriga qarang.
    • Qappayib hilpirardi biz /ˈbɛtər/ o'rniga /ˈbɛdər/ yozish, qaysi better (yaxshiroq) kabi so'zlar bilan.
    • Glottalization biz yozish kabi toifalarida samolyot tutishi va, ayrim aytsa, qizi sifatida aytganda, /ˈdʒɛtlæɡ/ va /ˈdɔːtər/ asosan /ˈdʒɛʔlæɡ/ va /ˈdɔːʔər/ ortiq. Ushbu tizimda /ʔ/ faqat paratil uchun yoki asl tilda fonemik tarzda kelgan so'zlarda qo'llaniladi.
    • Biz /ˈbɒtəl/ va /ˈælps/ o'rniga /ˈbɒtʊ/ va /ˈæwps/ bottle (shisha) va alps (Alp) tog'lari kabi so'zlardagi L-vokalizatsiyasi .
    • Ning allophones o'rtasidagi farq /ə/ yilda Bal bir Yili [ ə ] bir Butning va Russi bir (va, non-rhotic lahjalari, bett ar) yaqinroq bo'lishi mumkin, har ikkisi ham, uchun /ʌ/ sayfasındakiler boshqalar oyoq-qo‘zg‘aluvchan bo‘linishli shevalarda (ya’ni [ ɐ ] ) bo‘g‘indagi o n ( quyidagi undoshning bo‘g‘inliligi ). Hammasi tizimimizda /ə/ sifatida transkripsiya qilingan.
    • Turli dialektlarda ingliz tovushlarining (asosan unlilar) fonetik amalga oshirilishi o'rtasidagi farq. Keling, Betti uchun uzumni /lɛts ˈpɪk səm ˈɡreɪps fər ˈbɛti/ qat'i nazar, transkripsiya qilinishi kerak va har bir kishi bu transkripsiyani o'z shevasiga ko'ra izohlashi kerak. Shunday qilib, Janubiy Sharqiy Angliya bir odam [lɛʔs ˈpʰɪk səm ˈɡɹɛɪps fə ˈbɛtˢɪi] [ɫɛts ˈpʰɪk səm ˈɡɾeps fɚ ˈbɛte] sifatida Shotlandiya, Yangi Zelandiya kimdir bu transkripsiya talqin qiladi, holbuki kabi [ɫɪts ˈpʰək səm ˈɡɹæɪps fə ˈbɪɾi] kabi narsa deb o'qib beradi [ɫɪts ˈpʰək səm ˈɡɹæɪps fə ˈbɪɾi] . Biz telefonlar (haqiqiy tovushlar) emas, balki diafonemalarni transkripsiya qilayotganimiz sababli , masalan, Yangi Zelandiyadan kimdir talaffuz qilgan let’s unlisi Angliya va Shotlandiyadagi odamlar odatda tanlovdagi birinchi unlini qanday talaffuz qilishiga mos kelishi muhim emas. Shotlandiyaning /ɡ/ / dan keyin /r/ soʻzlashuvi Yangi Zelandiyada unlilar orasidagi /t/ realizatsiyasi bilan mos keladi. Boshqacha qilib aytadigan bo'lsak, ⟨ belgisi tizimimizdagi ochiq-o'rta oldingi yumaloqlanmagan unlini emas, balki urg'uga qarab let's dagi unli sifatida aniqlanishi mumkin bo'lgan har qanday unlini anglatadi. Biz uzum ikkinchi tovushga oddiy ramzi ⟩ foydalanish nega bu ham.

Boshqa so'zlar so'zlovchiga qarab turli xil unlilarga ega bo'lishi mumkin.

Shotlandiya, Shimoliy Irlandiya, Shimoliy Angliya va Uelsning aksariyat shevalarida /æ/ unlisining talaffuzi [ a ] ga yaqinroq boʻlgan. Pronunciation an'anaviy yaqin-ochiq old ro'yobga [ ko'chib o'tdi qabul [ [ to'liq ochiq old amalga oshirish ] [ ] va ikkala Oksford English Dictionary va ingliz Gimson ning talaffuz 2014 nashr yigit, yomon, mushuk unli moslashtirmoq, /a/ bilan tuzoq . [lower-alpha 24]

Dialekt o'zgarishlari haqida kengroq ma'lumot olish uchun siz ingliz dialektlari uchun IPA jadvalini ko'rishingiz mumkin.

Yodda tutingki, bu mavhum tizimda joy nomlari odatda transkripsiyadan ozod etilmaydi, shuning uchun mahalliy talaffuzni tiklash uchun yuqoridagi kabi qoidalar qo'llanilishi kerak. Ford, mahalliy da talaffuz [‑fəd] [‑fəd] /‑fərd/ transkripte etiladi /‑fərd/ misollar joy Angliya oxirgi ko'p ismlar o'z ichiga oladi. Bu muharrirlar uchun eng yaxshi amaliyot. Biroq, o'quvchilar shuni bilishlari kerakki, hamma muharrirlar ham bunga izchil rioya qilmagan bo'lishi mumkin, shuning uchun, masalan, /‑fəd/ /r/ ham bo'lmasligi kerak degan da'vo sifatida talqin qilinmasligi kerak. rotik dialekt.

Boshqa transkripsiyalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Agar siz talaffuzni qayta yozishni boshqa konventsiyadan foydalanib qo'shish zarur deb hisoblasangiz, iltimos, Vikipediyaning talaffuzni qayta yozish kaliti qoidalaridan foydalaning.

  • Quyidagi IPA belgilarini IPA bo'lmagan Amerika lug'at konventsiyalari bilan solishtirish uchun, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarida nashr etilgan o'n to'rtta inglizcha lug'atning talaffuz qo'llanmalari ro'yxatini ko'rsatadigan Ingliz tili uchun talaffuzni qayta tiklash ga qarang.
  • Quyidagi IPA belgilarini tanish boʻlishi mumkin boʻlgan boshqa IPA konventsiyalari bilan solishtirish uchun Britaniya, Avstraliya va Qoʻshma Shtatlarda nashr etilgan sakkizta inglizcha lugʻatning konventsiyalari roʻyxati keltirilgan Yordam:IPA/Ingliz tili uchun konventsiyalarga qarang.

Shuningdek qarang[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  • Brauzeringiz IPA belgilarini ko'rsatmasa, ehtimol siz IPA ni o'z ichiga olgan shriftni o'rnatishingiz kerak bo'ladi (yaxshi, bepul IPA shriftlari uchun Gentium va to'liqroq Charis SIL uchun maqolalardagi yuklab olish havolalarini ko'ring; bir bo'shliqli shrift uchun qarang. to'liq Everson Mono )
  • Vikipediya maqolalariga IPA talaffuzlarini qoʻshish uchun {{IPA}} shabloniga qarang
  • Vikipediya maqolalariga IPA belgilarini qoʻshish boʻyicha qoʻllanma uchun Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § IPA belgilarini kiritish .
  • Yordam: IPA/Ingliz tili uchun konventsiyalar
  • Yordam: talaffuzni qayta yozish kaliti
  • Ingliz tili uchun talaffuzni qayta yozish

Manbalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

 

Tashqi havolalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Andoza:IPA templatesAndoza:Wikipedia help pages

  1. /ʍ/ найдено в диалектах Шотландии и стран Южной Америки
  2. Часть английских слов, такие как: genre или garage — произносятя либо с /ʒ/, либо с /dʒ/.
  3. Во многих диалектах, /x/ заменяется /k/ в слове loch и /h/ в Chanukah.
  4. Много людей произносят английское Hawaii без /ʔ/, как в гавайском слове Hawai‘i.
  5. Во многих североамериканских диалектах не отделяется от /ɑː/.
  6. Обычно в транскрипции пишут /əʊ/ или /oː/.
  7. For example, if you have the marry–merry merger, you probably only merge /æ/ and /ɛ/ before /r/. You would still distinguish man and men.
  8. 8,0 8,1 In varieties with flapping, /t/ and sometimes also /d/ between a vowel and a weak or word-initial vowel may be pronounced with a voiced tap Andoza:IPAblink, making latter sound similar or identical to ladder. Some dictionaries transcribe /t/ subject to this process as Andoza:Angbr IPA or Andoza:Angbr IPA, but they are not distinguished in this transcription system. In those varieties, the sequence /nt/ in the same environment may also be realized as a nasalized tap Andoza:IPAblink, making winter sound similar or identical to winner. This is also not distinguished in this system.
  9. 9,0 9,1 9,2 9,3 9,4 9,5 9,6 In dialects with yod dropping, /j/ in /juː/, /ju/, or /jʊər/ is not pronounced after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod coalescence, /tj/ and /dj/ mostly merge with /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose. In some dialects /sj/ and /zj/ are also affected and frequently merge with /ʃ/ and /ʒ/. Where /j/ in /juː/, /ju/, or /jʊər/ following a coronal is still pronounced in yod-dropping accents, place a syllable break before it: menu /ˈmɛn.juː/.
  10. The phoneme /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in the many dialects with the winewhine merger, such as RP and most varieties of General American. For more information on this sound, see voiceless labialized velar approximant.
  11. The IPA value of the letter Andoza:Angbr IPA may be counterintuitive to English speakers, but the spelling is found even in some common English words like hallelujah and fjord.
  12. /l/ in the syllable coda, as in the words all, cold, or bottle, is pronounced as Andoza:IPAblink, Andoza:IPAblink, Andoza:IPAblink or a similar sound in many dialects through L-vocalization.
  13. In most varieties of English, /r/ is pronounced as an approximant [ɹ]. Although the IPA symbol Andoza:Angbr IPA represents the alveolar trill, Andoza:Angbr IPA is widely used instead of Andoza:Angbr IPA in broad transcriptions of English.
  14. A number of English words, such as genre and garage, may be pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  15. In most dialects, /x/ can also be replaced by /k/ in most words, including loch. It is also replaced with /h/ in some words, particularly of Yiddish origin, such as Chanukah.
  16. 16,0 16,1 /ɒ̃, æ̃/ are only found in French loanwords and often replaced by another vowel and a nasal consonant: bon vivant /ˌbɒn viːˈvɒnt/, ensemble /ɒnˈsɒmbəl/, etc.[lower-alpha 1]
  17. /ɜː/ is only found in loanwords and represents a situation where such an r-less vowel is used only in British or Southern Hemisphere accents, and therefore a transcription that includes it must always be prefaced with a label indicating the variety of English. It is to be used only when a reliable source shows that General American has a different vowel in the same position. If r-ful Andoza:Sc2 is used even in GA, even if spelled without Andoza:Angbr, as in Goethe and hors d'oeuvre, use /ɜːr/. /ɜː/ is also not the same as Andoza:Angbr seen in some American dictionaries. Andoza:Angbr in those dictionaries is merely a notational convention and does not correspond to any vowel in any accent of English, so a transcription containing Andoza:Angbr cannot be converted to one that uses this key.
  18. In non-rhotic accents like RP, /r/ is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel.
  19. In dialects with the fatherbother merger such as General American, /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/.
  20. In most of the United States, /ɒr/ is merged with /ɔːr/, except for a handful of words such as borrow, tomorrow and sorry, which instead have /ɑːr/. In some parts of the Southern and Northeastern US, it is always merged with /ɑːr/. In Canada, it is always merged with /ɔːr/.
  21. In North America, /æ/ is often pronounced like a diphthong [eə~ɛə] before nasal consonants and, in some particular regional dialects, other environments. See [[:/æ/ raising|/æ/ raising]].
  22. 22,0 22,1 22,2 Many North American accents have the Marymarrymerry merger and therefore don't distinguish between the corresponding sounds /ɛər/, /ær/, and /ɛr/. Some speakers merge only two of the sounds (most typically /ɛər/ with one of the short vowels), and less than a fifth of speakers of American English make a full three-way distinction like in RP and similar accents.[lower-alpha 2]
  23. 23,0 23,1 In much of North America, /aɪ/ or /aʊ/ may have a slightly different quality when it precedes a voiceless consonant, as in price or mouth, from that in ride/pie or loud/how, a phenomenon known as Canadian raising. Since this occurs in a predictable fashion, it is not distinguished in this transcription system.
  24. 24,0 24,1 24,2 Some speakers pronounce higher, flower and coyer ("more coy") with two syllables, and hire, flour and coir with one. Most pronounce them the same. For the former group of words, make use of syllable breaks, as in /ˈhaɪ.ər/, /ˈflaʊ.ər/, /ˈkɔɪ.ər/, to differentiate from the latter. Also, the distinction between /aɪər, aʊər, ɔɪər/ and /aɪr, aʊr, ɔɪr/ is not always clear; choose the former if the second element may be omitted (as in [ˈdaəri] diary).
  25. /ɛ/ is transcribed with Andoza:Angbr IPA in many dictionaries. However, /eɪ/ is also sometimes transcribed with Andoza:Angbr IPA, especially in North American literature, so Andoza:Angbr IPA is chosen here.
  26. 26,0 26,1 26,2 /ɛə/, /ɪə/, or /ʊə/ may be separated from /r/ only when a stress follows it. The IPAc-en template supports /ɛəˈr/, /ɪəˈr/, /ʊəˈr/, /ɛəˌr/, /ɪəˌr/, and /ʊəˌr/ as distinct diaphonemes for such occasions.
  27. 27,0 27,1 27,2 27,3 Andoza:Angbr IPA and Andoza:Angbr IPA represent strong vowels in some words and weak vowels in others. It will not always be clear which they are.[lower-alpha 3][lower-alpha 4]
  28. 28,0 28,1 Words like idea, real, theatre, and cruel may be pronounced with /ɪə/ or /ʊə/ in non-rhotic accents such as Received Pronunciation, and some dictionaries transcribe them with /ɪə, ʊə/,[lower-alpha 5] but since they are not pronounced with /r/ in rhotic accents, they should be transcribed with /iːə, uːə/, not with /ɪə, ʊə/, in this transcription system.
  29. /oʊ/ is often transcribed with Andoza:Angbr IPA, particularly in British literature, based on its modern realization in Received Pronunciation. It is also transcribed with Andoza:Angbr IPA, particularly in North American literature.
  30. 30,0 30,1 Some conservative dialects make a distinction between the vowels in horse and hoarse, but the number of speakers who make this distinction any longer is very small and many dictionaries do not differentiate between them (horsehoarse merger).
  31. /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɒ/ in dialects with the cotcaught merger such as Scottish English, Canadian English and many varieties of General American. In North America, the two vowels most often fall together with /ɑː/.
  32. /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔːr/ in dialects with the cureforce merger, including many younger speakers. In England, the merger may not be fully consistent and may only apply to more common words. In conservative RP and Northern England English /ʊər/ is much more commonly preserved than in modern RP and Southern England English. In Australia and New Zealand, /ʊər/ does not exist as a separate phoneme and is replaced either by the sequence /uːər/ (/uːr/ before vowels within the same word, save for some compounds) or the monophthong /ɔːr/.
  33. Some, particularly North American, dictionaries notate /ʌ/ with the same symbol as /ə/, which is found only in unstressed syllables, and distinguish it from /ə/ by marking the syllable as stressed. Also note that although Andoza:Angbr IPA, the IPA symbol for the open-mid back vowel, is used, the typical modern pronunciation is rather close to the near-open central vowel [ɐ] in most dialects, including Received Pronunciation and General American.
  34. /ʌ/ is not used in the dialects of the northern half of England, some bordering parts of Wales, and some broad eastern Ireland accents. These words would take the /ʊ/ vowel: there is no footstrut split.
  35. In Received Pronunciation, /ɜːr/ is pronounced as a lengthened schwa, [əː]. In General American, it is phonetically identical to /ər/. Some dictionaries therefore use Andoza:Angbr IPA instead of the conventional notations Andoza:Angbr IPA. When Andoza:Angbr IPA is used for /ɜːr/, it is distinguished from /ər/ by marking the syllable as stressed.
  36. /ʌr/ is not distinguished from /ɜːr/ in dialects with the hurryfurry merger such as General American.
  37. 37,0 37,1 In a number of contexts, /ə/ in /ər/, /əl/, /ən/, or /əm/ is often omitted, resulting in a syllable with no vowel. Some dictionaries show /ə/ in those contexts in parentheses, superscript, or italics to indicate this possibility, or simply omit /ə/. When followed by a weak vowel, the syllable may be lost altogether, with the consonant moving to the next syllable, so that doubling /ˈdʌb.əl.ɪŋ/ may alternatively be pronounced as [ˈdʌb.lɪŋ], and Edinburgh /ˈɛd.ɪn.bər.ə/ as [ˈɛd.ɪn.brə].[lower-alpha 9] When not followed by a vowel, /ər/ merges with /ə/ in non-rhotic accents.
  38. Andoza:Angbr IPA represents a strong vowel in some contexts and a weak vowel in others. In accents with the weak vowel merger such as most Australian and American accents, weak /ɪ/ is not distinguished from schwa /ə/, making rabbit and abbot rhyme and Lenin and Lennon homophonous. (Pairs like roses and Rosa's are kept distinct in American accents because of the difference in morphological structure,[lower-alpha 6] but may be homophonous in Australian.[lower-alpha 7]) In these accents, weak /ɪl, ɪn, ɪm/ merge with /əl, ən, əm/, so that the second vowel in Latin may be lost and cabinet may be disyllabic (see the previous note).
  39. 39,0 39,1 /oʊ/ and /u/ in unstressed, prevocalic positions are transcribed as /əw/ by Merriam-Webster, but no other dictionary uniformly follows this practice.[lower-alpha 8] Hence a difference between /əw/ in Merriam-Webster and /oʊ/ or /u/ in another source is most likely one in notation, not in pronunciation, so /əw/ in such cases may be better replaced with /oʊ/ or /u/ accordingly, to minimize confusion: /ˌsɪtʃəˈweɪʃən//ˌsɪtʃuˈeɪʃən/, /ˈfɒləwər//ˈfɒloʊər/.
  40. 40,0 40,1 Andoza:Angbr IPA represents variation between /iː/ and /ɪ/ in unstressed prevocalic or morpheme-final positions. It is realized with a quality closer to /iː/ in accents with happy tensing, such as Australian English, General American, and modern RP, and to /ɪ/ in others. Andoza:Angbr IPA likewise represents variation between /uː/ and /ʊ/ in unstressed prevocalic positions.
  41. The sequence Andoza:Angbr IPA may be pronounced as two syllables, [i.ə] or [ɪ.ə], or as one, [jə] or [ɪə̯]. When pronounced as one syllable in a non-rhotic accent, it may be indistinguishable from, and identified as, the Andoza:Sc2 vowel (/ɪər/).[lower-alpha 5] This transcription system uses Andoza:Angbr IPA, not Andoza:Angbr IPA, Andoza:Angbr IPA, etc., to cover all these possibilities.
  42. The sequence Andoza:Angbr IPA may be pronounced as two syllables, [u.ə] or [ʊ.ə], or as one, [wə] or [ʊə̯]. When pronounced as one syllable in a non-rhotic accent, it may be indistinguishable from, and identified as, the Andoza:Sc2 vowel (/ʊər/).[lower-alpha 5] This transcription system uses Andoza:Angbr IPA, not Andoza:Angbr IPA, Andoza:Angbr IPA, etc., to cover all these possibilities.
  43. The IPA stress mark Andoza:Angbr IPA comes before the syllable that has the stress, in contrast to stress marking in pronunciation keys of some dictionaries published in the United States.
  44. Syllable divisions are not usually marked, but the IPA dot Andoza:Angbr IPA may be used when it is wished to make explicit where a division between syllables is (or may be) made.


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