Kontent qismiga oʻtish

Global isish kuchi

Vikipediya, ochiq ensiklopediya
Atmosferadagi uzoq muddatli issiqxona gazlarining tarqaluvchi ta'siri (issiqlik ta'siri) tezlashdi va 40 yil ichida deyarli ikki baravar ko'paydi.[1][2][3]

Global isish kuchi ( GIK ) bu issiqxona gazlari tomonidan atmosferaga qo'shilgan infraqizil termal nurlanishni ma'lum vaqt oralig'ida qancha qismi o'zlashtirishining o'lchov birligidir, bu birlik biror bir gazni bir xil og'irlikdagi karbonat angidrid tomonidan so'rilgan issiqlikka nisbatan xisoblab topiladi. GIK karbonat angidrid uchun 1 ga teng. Boshqa gazlar uchun bu birlik, ma'lum bir gaz infraqizil termal nurlanishni qanchalik kuchli yutishiga, gazning atmosferani qanchalik tez tark etishiga va hisobga olinadigan vaqtga bog'liq bo'ladi. Karbonat angidrid ekvivalenti ( CO e yoki CO ekvivalenti yoki CO -e) GIK dan hisob topiladi. Shunday qilib, u turli gazlarning iqlim ta'sirini o'lchash uchun umumiy shkala bo'lib hizmat qiladi.

Metanning GIK (20+ yil vaqt uchun hisoblangan) 81,2 ni tashkil qiladi, ya'ni, masalan, bir tonna metan sizib chiqishi 81,2 tonna karbonat angidridni chiqarishga teng. Xuddi shunday bir tonna azot oksidi, masalan,odatda go'ng yoki sholi dalalaridadan ajralib chiqadi, 273 tonna karbonat angidridga teng. Shuning uchun metan atmosferamizni karbinat angidriddan ko'ra 81.2 marta ko'proq isitadi, azot oksidi esa 273 marta ko'roq iqlim o'zgarishlariga sabab bo'ladi.

Issiqxona gazi Kimyoviy formulasi 100-yillik Global isish kuchi

(2007 estimates, for 2013–2020 comparisons)
Carbon dioxide CO2 1
Methane CH4 25
Nitrous oxide N2O 298
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
HFC-23 CHF3 14,800
Difluoromethane (HFC-32) CH2F2 675
Fluoromethane (HFC-41) CH3F 92
HFC-43-10mee CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3 1,640
Pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) C2HF5 3,500
HFC-134 C2H2F4 (CHF2CHF2) 1,100
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) C2H2F4 (CH2FCF3) 1,430
HFC-143 C2H3F3 (CHF2CH2F) 353
1,1,1-Trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) C2H3F3 (CF3CH3) 4,470
HFC-152 CH2FCH2F 53
HFC-152a C2H4F2 (CH3CHF2) 124
HFC-161 CH3CH2F 12
1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea) C3HF7 3,220
HFC-236cb CH2FCF2CF3 1,340
HFC-236ea CHF2CHFCF3 1,370
HFC-236fa C3H2F6 9,810
HFC-245ca C3H3F5 693
HFC-245fa CHF2CH2CF3 1,030
HFC-365mfc CH3CF2CH2CF3 794
Perfluorocarbons
Carbon tetrafluoride – PFC-14 CF4 7,390
Hexafluoroethane – PFC-116 C2F6 12,200
Octafluoropropane – PFC-218 C3F8 8,830
Perfluorobutane – PFC-3-1-10 C4F10 8,860
Octafluorocyclobutane – PFC-318 c-C4F8 10,300
Perfluouropentane – PFC-4-1-12 C5F12 9,160
Perfluorohexane – PFC-5-1-14 C6F14 9,300
Perfluorodecalin – PFC-9-1-18b C10F18 7,500
Perfluorocyclopropane c-C3F6 17,340
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)
Sulfur hexafluoride SF6 22,800
Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3)
Nitrogen trifluoride NF3 17,200
Fluorinated ethers
HFE-125 CHF2OCF3 14,900
Bis(difluoromethyl) ether (HFE-134) CHF2OCHF2 6,320
HFE-143a CH3OCF3 756
HCFE-235da2 CHF2OCHClCF3 350
HFE-245cb2 CH3OCF2CF3 708
HFE-245fa2 CHF2OCH2CF3 659
HFE-254cb2 CH3OCF2CHF2 359
HFE-347mcc3 CH3OCF2CF2CF3 575
HFE-347pcf2 CHF2CF2OCH2CF3 580
HFE-356pcc3 CH3OCF2CF2CHF2 110
HFE-449sl (HFE-7100) C4F9OCH3 297
HFE-569sf2 (HFE-7200) C4F9OC2H5 59
HFE-43-10pccc124 (H-Galden 1040x) CHF2OCF2OC2F4OCHF2 1,870
HFE-236ca12 (HG-10) CHF2OCF2OCHF2 2,800
HFE-338pcc13 (HG-01) CHF2OCF2CF2OCHF2 1,500
(CF3)2CFOCH3 343
CF3CF2CH2OH 42
(CF3)2CHOH 195
HFE-227ea CF3CHFOCF3 1,540
HFE-236ea2 CHF2OCHFCF3 989
HFE-236fa CF3CH2OCF3 487
HFE-245fa1 CHF2CH2OCF3 286
HFE-263fb2 CF3CH2OCH3 11
HFE-329mcc2 CHF2CF2OCF2CF3 919
HFE-338mcf2 CF3CH2OCF2CF3 552
HFE-347mcf2 CHF2CH2OCF2CF3 374
HFE-356mec3 CH3OCF2CHFCF3 101
HFE-356pcf2 CHF2CH2OCF2CHF2 265
HFE-356pcf3 CHF2OCH2CF2CHF2 502
HFE-365mcfI’ll t3 CF3CF2CH2OCH3 11
HFE-374pc2 CHF2CF2OCH2CH3 557
– (CF2)4CH (OH) – 73
(CF3)2CHOCHF2 380
(CF3)2CHOCH3 27
Perfluoropolyethers
PFPMIE CF3OCF(CF3)CF2OCF2OCF3 10,300
Trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride SF5CF3 17,400

Global isish kuchini hisoblash[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

GIK quyidagi omillarga bog'liq:

  • ma'lum bir gaz tomonidan infraqizil nurlanishning yutilishi
  • ma'lum bir belgilangan vaqt (integratsiya davri)
  • gazning atmosferada qolish vaqti

Yuqori GIK katta infraqizil yutilish va uzoq atmosferada qolish vaqti bilan bog'liq. GWP ning yutilish to'lqin uzunligiga bog'liqligi ancha murakkab. Agar gaz ma'lum bir to'lqin uzunligida radiatsiyani samarali o'zlashtirsa ham, atmosfera shu to'lqin uzunligida eng ko'p nurlanishni usiz ham o'zlashtirsa, bu GIKga unchalik ham ta'sir qilmasligi mumkin. Agar gaz atmosfera yutmaydigan to'lqin uzunliklaridagi nurni yutsa, eng katta ta'sirga ega bo'ladi. GIK ning to'lqin uzunligiga bog'liqligi empirik tarzda topilgan va grafik sifatida nashr etilgan.

  1. „The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI)“. NOAA.gov. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (spring 2023). 2023-yil 24-mayda asl nusxadan arxivlangan.
  2. „Annual Greenhouse Gas Index“. U.S. Global Change Research Program. 2021-yil 21-aprelda asl nusxadan arxivlangan. Qaraldi: 2020-yil 5-sentyabr.
  3. Butler J. and Montzka S. „The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI)“. NOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory/Earth System Research Laboratories (2020). 2013-yil 22-sentyabrda asl nusxadan arxivlangan. Qaraldi: 2020-yil 5-sentyabr.