Mark Twain

Vikipediya, ochiq ensiklopediya
Samuel Langhorne Clemens
Mark Twain Sarony.jpg
Taxallus: Mark Twain
Tavallud sanasi: 30-noyabr, 1835-yil(1835-11-30)
Tavallud joyi: Florida, Missuri, AQSh
Vafot sanasi: 21-aprel, 1910-yil(1910-04-21)
(74 yoshda)
Vafot joyi: Redding, Konnektikut
Fuqarolik: AQSH bayrogʻi AQSh
Kasb:
Faoliyat: yozuvchi, satirachi, jurnalist, maʼruzachi
Magnum opus: Huckleberry Finnning sarguzashtlari
Mark Twain (1909)

Mark Twain (Mark Tven, taxallus, haqiqiy ismi Samuel Langhorne ClemensSemyuel Lengxorn Klemens; 18351910) — buyuk amerikalik yozuvchi, satirachi, jurnalist va maʼruzachi. Samuel Clemens Amerikalik eng yaxshi va eng sevimli yozuvchilardan biri hisoblanadi.[1]

Samuel Clemens 1835-yil noyabr oyida Missuri shtati Florida shahrida tugʻildi. U oilada 3-farzand boʻlgan. Uning otasi 1847-yili vafot etadi.

TVEN (Twain) Mark (taxallusi; asl ismsharifi Semyuel Lengxorn Klemens) (1835.30.11, Florida, Missuri shtati — 1910.21.04, Redding , Konnektikut shtati) — amerikalik yozuvchi, jaqon adabiyotining yirik namoyandasi. Oʻspirinlik va yigitlik yillarida darbadarlikda kun kechirgan, turli kasblar bilan shugʻullanib, tirikchilik oʻtkazgan, keyinchalik gaz. tahririyatlarida ishlagan. Folklor syujeti asosida yozilgan "Kalaverasdan chiqqan mashhur sakrovchi qurbaqa" asari (1865)da soddadil amerikaliklarning hazilmutoyibasi va hayoti tasvirlangan. 1867 y.da Yevropa va Falastin boʻylab sayohat qilgan. "Chet ellardagi soddadil kishilar" (1869) yumoristik ocherklar, "Toblanganlar" (1872) ocherklar kitoblariga kirgan asarlar ana shu sayohatlar taassurotlari asosida maydonga kelgan. "Zarhal asr" (1873, Ch. Uorner bilan hamkorlikda) romani moliyaviysiyosiy korrupsiya haqida, "Yaltiroq asr" (1874) satirik romanida esa jamiyat illatlari hajv etiladi. Yumoristik va satirik yoʻsinda yozilgan "Eski va yangi hikoyalar" (1875), "Tennesidagi jurnalistika" (1869), "Meni gubernatorlikka qanday saylashgani" (1870), "Qishloq xoʻjaligi gazetasiga qanday muharrirlik qildim" (1870) singari toʻplamlariga kirgan asarlarida Amerika xayotining turli qirralari tasvirlangan.

"Geklberri Finning boshidan kechirganlari" (1884) romanida amerikacha xdyotning yetuk ijtimoiy tanqidi, muruvvat va iltifotning manfaatparastlik va shafqatsizlik bilan yonmayon mavjudligi koʻzga tashlansa, "Qirol Artur saroyidagi konnektikutlik yankilar" (1889) qissasida ijtimoiy qaramaqarshilik dunyosi krralanadi. "Missisipidagi eski davrlar" (1875), "Missisipidagi hayot" (1883) kitoblari, "Shahzoda va gado" (1882), "Ovsar Vilson" (1894), "Tom Soyer chet elda" (1894), "Tom Soyer — josus" (1897), "Sirli notanish odam" (1916) kabi roman va qissalar muallifi.

Yozuvchining 1895 y. dagi jahon boʻylab sayohati "Ekvator boʻylab" (1897) kitobida, shuningdek, pamfletlar turkumi, shu jumladan "Qorongʻida oʻtirgan odamga" (1901), "Harbiy ibodat" (1923 y.da nashr etilgan) asarlarida aks etgan.

Bolalarga atab yozilgan asarlari bolalar adabiyotining mumtoz namunalari sanaladi ("Tom Soyerning boshidan kechirganlari", 1876 va b.). "Tom Soyerning boshidan kechirganlari" asari (A. Pirnazarov tarjimasi) oʻzbek tilida bir necha bor nashr etilgan. Shuningdek, "Geklberri Finning boshidan kechirganlari", "Hikoya va pamfletlar" (1959), "Shahzoda va gado" (1962) va b. asarlari xam oʻzbek tiliga tarjima qilingan, maktab darsliklariga kiritilgan.

Bibliografiya (oʻzbekcha nomlari)[tahrir]

  • "Kalaveraslik mashhur sakrovchi qurbaqa", hikoyalar toʻplami (1865)
  • "Sodda odamlar xorijda" (1869)
  • "Chiniqqanlar" (1871)
  • "Zarhallangan asr" (1873), Ch. D. Uorner bilan hamkorlikda yozilgan roman
  • "Eski va yangi lavhalar" (1875), hikoyalar toʻplami
  • "Missisipidagi avvalgi davrlar" (1875)
  • "Tom Sawyerning sarguzashtlari" (1876)
  • "Shaxzoda va gado" (1881)
  • "Missisipidagi hayot" (1883), hikoyalar toʻplami
  • "Huckleberry Finnning sarguzashtlari" (1884)
  • "Asrovchi farishtaning xati" (1887), 1946-yilda chop etilgan
  • "Qirol Arthur huzuridagi Konnektikutlik yankilar" (1889)
  • "Laqma Wilson" (1894)
  • "Janna d'Ark" (1896)
  • "Gedlibergni yoʻldan urgan odam" (1900)
  • "Sirli notanish odam", iblis haqida qissa, 1916-yilda chop etilgan

Toʻliq bibliografiya (haqiqiy nomlari)[tahrir]

  • (1867) Advice for Little Girls (fiction)
  • (1867) The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County (fiction)
  • (1868) General Washington's Negro Body-Servant (fiction)
  • (1868) My Late Senatorial Secretaryship (fiction)
  • (1869) The Innocents Abroad (non-fiction travel)
  • (1870-71) Memoranda (monthly column for The Galaxy magazine)
  • (1871) Mark Twain's (Burlesque) Autobiography and First Romance (fiction)
  • (1872) Roughing It]] (non-fiction)
  • (1873) The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (fiction, made into a play)
  • (1875) Sketches New and Old (fictional stories)
  • (1876) Old Times on the Mississippi (non-fiction)
  • (1876) The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (fiction)
  • (1876) A Murder, a Mystery, and a Marriage (fiction); (1945, private edition), (2001, Atlantic Monthly).
  • (1877) A True Story and the Recent Carnival of Crime (stories)
  • (1877) The Invalid's Story (Fiction)
  • (1878) Punch, Brothers, Punch! and other Sketches (fictional stories)
  • (1880) A Tramp Abroad (travel)
  • (1880) 1601: Conversation, as it was by the Social Fireside, in the Time of the Tudors (fiction)
  • (1882) The Prince and the Pauper (fiction)
  • (1883) Life on the Mississippi (non-fiction)
  • (1884) Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (fiction)
  • (1889) A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (fiction)
  • (1892) The American Claimant (fiction)
  • (1892) Merry Tales (fictional stories)
  • (1892) Those Extraordinary Twins (fiction)
  • (1893) The £1,000,000 Bank Note and Other New Stories (fictional stories)
  • (1894) Tom Sawyer Abroad (fiction)
  • (1894) The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson (fiction)
  • (1896) Tom Sawyer, Detective (fiction)
  • (1896) Personal Recollections of Joan of Ar] (fiction)
  • (1897) How to Tell a Story and other Essays (non-fictional essays)
  • (1897) Following the Equator (non-fiction travel)
  • (1898) Is He Dead? (play)
  • (1900) The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg (fiction)
  • (1900) A Salutation Speech From the Nineteenth Century to the Twentieth (essay)
  • (1901) The Battle Hymn of the Republic, Updated (satire)
  • (1901) Edmund Burke on Croker and Tammany (political satire)
  • (1901) To the Person Sitting in Darkness (essay)
  • (1902) A Double Barrelled Detective Story (fiction)
  • (1904) A Dog's Tale (fiction)
  • (1904) Extracts from Adam's Diary (fiction)
  • (1905) King Leopold's Soliloquy (political satire)
  • (1905) The War Prayer (fiction)
  • (1906) The $30,000 Bequest and Other Stories (fiction)
  • (1906) What Is Man? (essay)
  • (1906) Eve's Diary (fiction)
  • (1907) Christian Science (non-fiction critique)
  • (1907) A Horse's Tale (fiction)
  • (1907) Is Shakespeare Dead? (non-fiction)
  • (1909) Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven (fiction)
  • (1909) Letters from the Earth (fiction, published posthumously)
  • (1910) Queen Victoria's Jubilee (non-fiction)
  • (1912) My Platonic Sweetheart (dream journal, possibly non-fiction)
  • (1916) The Mysterious Stranger (fiction, possibly not by Twain, published posthumously)
  • (1924) Mark Twain's Autobiography (non-fiction, published posthumously)
  • (1935) Mark Twain's Notebook (published posthumously)
  • (1962) Letters from the Earth (posthumous, edited by Bernard DeVoto)
  • (1969) No. 44, The Mysterious Stranger (fiction, published posthumously)
  • (1985) Concerning the Jews (published posthumously)
  • (1992) Mark Twain's Weapons of Satire: Anti-Imperialist Writings on the Philippine-American War]]. Jim Zwick, ed. (Syracuse University Press) ISBN 0-8156-0268-5 (previously uncollected, published posthumously)
  • (1995) The Bible According to Mark Twain: Writings on Heaven, Eden, and the Flood (published posthumously)

Manbalar[tahrir]

Havolalar[tahrir]

Manbalar[tahrir]

  • Ezma Bessi, T., 1963; Yanki va qirol Artur, T., 1984; Ovsar Vilson, T., 1986.

Rahmatulla Inomov.