Hafsa Sultan

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Hafsa Sulton (usmonli turkcha: حفصه سلطان ‎ 1478 - 1534-yil mart) Salim I ning sevimli kanizagi va Sulaymon Sulaymonning onasi sifatida Usmonli imperiyasining birinchi sultoni edi. Oʻgʻlining 1520-yilda taxtga oʻtirilishidan 1534-yilda vafotigacha boʻlgan davrda u Usmonli imperiyasining eng nufuzli shaxslaridan biri boʻlgan.[1]

Kelib chiqishi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

XVII asr gʻarbiy mualliflarning maʼlumotlariga asoslanib, Hafsa Sulton 1466-1515-yillar oraligʻida qrim tatarlarining xoni boʻlgan Menli I Girayning (1445–1515) qizi boʻlgan anʼanaviy qarashlarga qarshi chiqdi. Usmonli hujjatli dalillarga asoslangan nasroniy qul kelib chiqishi.[2][3] Bir qancha tarixchilar hali ham an'anaviy nuqtai nazarga amal qilishadi, jumladan Brayan Glin Uilyams.[4] Reshat Kasaba Salim I va Hafsa Sulton o'rtasidagi nikohni "Usmonli sultoni va qo'shni musulmon qirollik oilasi a'zosi o'rtasidagi so'nggi nikoh" sifatida tilga oladi.[5] Esin Otil esa, ba'zi tarixchilar uni Girayning qizi deb ta'kidlagan bo'lsalar, boshqalari "Ayse" laqabli Qrim malikasi Salim I ning yana bir xotini ekanligini va "Hafsa" asli qul bo'lgan bo'lishi mumkinligini ta'kidlagan.[6] Ilya Zaytsevning da'vo qilishicha, "Ayshe (Mengli-Giray I ning qizi)" dastlab Kefe hokimi Shehzade Mehmedga uylangan, keyin esa ukasi Selim Iga uylangan; binobarin, uning Usmonlilar sulolasiga uylanishi Giraylar va Usmonlilar o'rtasidagi nikohning qayd etilgan ikki misolidan biri bo'lgan (ikkinchisi Salim I ning qizining Saadet- Girayga turmushga chiqqan).[7] Alan V. Fisher, Lesli Pirs va Feridun Emesen Hafsani Qrim xonining qizi emas, balki qul asli deb bilishadi.

Hayot[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Manisada Hafsa Sulton buyrug'i bilan qurilgan kulliya. U qoʻshni Sulton masjidining bir qismidir

Turkiyaning gʻarbiy qismidagi Manisa shahrida 1513-1520-yillarda atrofdagi hududni boshqargan oʻgʻli Sulaymon bilan birga istiqomat qilgan (shahar Usmonli valiahd shahzodalari (veliaht shahzoda)ning kelajakdagi hokimiyat uchun shogirdlik qilish uchun an’anaviy qarorgohlaridan biri boʻlib ishlagan), Hafsa Sulton Manisada "Mesir festivali"ni o'tkazdi, bu mahalliy an'ana bugun ham davom etdi. Shuningdek, u shaharda Sulton masjidi deb nomlanuvchi masjid, boshlang'ich maktab, kollejdan iborat katta majmua qurgan.

Yangi sulton Sulaymonning onasi sifatida, 1521-yilda u "hatun" unvonini almashtirib, o'z nomidan keyin "sulton" unvonini olgan birinchi Usmonli imperator ayollari edi. Bu foydalanish Usmonlilarning suveren hokimiyat tushunchasini "oila huquqi" sifatida aks ettirdi.[8]Demak xatun unvoni (16-asrgacha hukmronlik qilayotgan Usmonli sultonining tirik onasining unvoni) ham valide sultonga aylanib, Hafsani birinchi haqiqiy sultonga aylantirdi. Uning davri sulton onasining mavqei o'zgarganligi va uning hokimiyatdagi ulushi ortganligidan dalolat berdi.[9] U, shuningdek,Strongilahga ega ekanligi tasdiqlangan birinchi haram ayol edi.[10]

O'lim[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Hafsa Sulton turbasiga kirish

Hafsa Sulton 1534-yil mart oyida vafot etdi va Istanbulning Fotih shahridagi Yavuz Selim masjidining qibla devori orqasidagi maqbarada erining yoniga dafn qilindi. Maqbara 1884-yildagi zilzila natijasida vayron boʻlgan, 1900-yillarda (oʻn yillikda) boshlangan rekonstruksiya ishlari toʻxtatilgan va bugungi kunda uning qabri dastlab qurilganidan ancha sodda.

Oila[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Salimdan Hafsaning kamida uchta farzandi bor edi:[11]

  • Hatice Sulton (? -?), Ikki marta turmush qurgan, bolalari bor
  • Fatma Sulton (? –1566), kamida ikki marta uylangan. Uning farzandlari bor-yo'qligi noma'lum.

Bularning yana ikkita qizi borki, Hafsaning onaligi haqida gap boradi:[12]

  • Hofiza Sulton (? -1538). U ikki marta turmushga chiqdi, kamida bitta farzandi bor edi.
  • Beyxon Sulton (? - 1559). Kamida bir marta turmush qurgan, bolalari bor.

Ommaviy madaniyatdagi vakilliklar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

"Muhtasham asr " tarixiy teleserialida uni turk aktrisasi Nebahat Chehre ijro etadi. Bu yerda syujet sabablariga koʻra u Hofiza Sulton emas, balki Shoh Sultonning onasi (boshqa kanizak Selimning boshqa qizlaridan biri) sifatida tasvirlangan.

Manba[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  1. Pietro Bragadin, Venetian Republic's ambassador in the early years of Suleiman the Magnificent's reign notes "a very beautiful woman of 48, for whom the sultan bears great reverence and love.
  2. Alan Fisher „The Life and Family of Suleyman I“,. Süleymân The Second [i.e. the First] and his time İnalcık: . Isis Press, 1993.. „That she was a Tatar, a daughter of the Crimean Khan Mengli Giray, was a story apparently begun by Jovius, repeated by other western sources, and taken up by Merriman in his biography of Suleyman“ 
  3. Encyclopedia of Islam vol.
  4. Glyn Williams, Brian (2001), The Crimean Tatars: The Diaspora Experience and the Forging of a Nation, BRILL, p. 56, ISBN 0295801492, "Ottoman princes, such as the future Ottoman Sultans Selim I (who married Mengli Giray Khan's daughter, Hafsa Hatun..." 
  5. Kasaba, Resat (2011), A Moveable Empire: Ottoman Nomads, Migrants, and Refugees, University of Washington Press, p. 44, ISBN 978-0295801490, "The last marriage between an Ottoman sultan and a member of a neighboring Muslim royal family was the one between Selim I and Hafsa Sultan, the daughter of the Crimean ruler Mengli Giray Khan." 
  6. Atıl, Esin (1987), The Age of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, National Gallery of Art, p. 27, ISBN 0810918552, "Some historians state that she was the daughter of Mengili Giray Han, the ruler of the Crimean Tatars. Others mention that Ayse, another wife of Selim I, was the Crimean princess and give as Hafsa's father a man named Abdulmumin or Abdulhay, and unknown person - suggesting that she was of slave origin." 
  7. Zaytsev, Ilya (2006), "The Structure of the Giray Dynasty (15th-16th centuries): Matrimonial and Kinship Relations of the Crimean Khans", Kinship in the Altaic World: Proceedings of the 48th Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Moscow 10-15 July 2005, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 341, ISBN 3447054166, "Only two instances concerning the Ottomans are noted. Ayshe (daughter of Mengli-Giray I) was married to şehzade and governor of Kefe Mehmed, and to his brother Selim I later on (917/1511). Sultan Selim's daughter was married to Saadet-Giray." 
  8. Peirce, Leslie P.The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press, 1993.. ISBN 0-19-508677-5. 
  9. Amy Singer. Constructing Ottoman beneficence: An imperial soup kitchen in Jerusalem. State University of New York Press, 2002. — 90 bet. ISBN 0-7914-5351-0. 
  10. Minna Rozen: A History of the Jewish Community in Istanbul, The Formative Years, 1453 – 1566 (2002).
  11. Leslie Peirce, The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-19-508677-5
  12. Leslie Peirce, The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-19-508677-5

Havolalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]