Yorkent xonligi

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Yorkent xonligi

葉爾羌汗國

يەركەن سەئىدىيە خانلىقى
1514–1705
Location of Yarkent Khanate
Maqom Andoza:Davlat bilgiqutisi/status text
Rasmiy til(lar) Chig`atoy tili
Din
Islom (sunniy)
Hukumat monarxiya
Tarix  
• 
Mo`g`uliston
• Asos solingan
1514
• Tugatilgan
1705
• 
Jung`or xonligi
Hozirda hududida quyidagilar mavjud Xitoy
Qirg`iziston

Yarkent xonligi, shuningdek, Yorkand xonligi va Qashgʻar xonligi[1] deb nomlanuvchi sunniy musulmon turkiy davlat boʻlib, Moʻgʻuliston xonligining avlodlari hukmronlik qilgan. Unga 1514-yilda Sulton Said Xon tomonidan Mo'g'ulistonning g'arbiy qismida asos solingan. Sulton Said xon o'zini esa Chag'atoy xonligining sharqiy qismi deb biladi. 1705-yilda Jung'or xonligi tomonidan bosib olingan.

Poytaxti[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Yorkent xonlik tashkil topganidan (1514-yil) to qulaguniga qadar (1705-yil) Yorkent xonligining poytaxti boʻlgan. Qashgʻaristonning tarixiy Duglat davlati ham Mirzo Abu Bakr Duglat (1465–1514) hukmronligi davrida davlat poytaxti sifatida Yorkentdan foydalangan.

Tarixi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Tashkil topishi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Xonlik aholisi asosan uyg'urlar / turkiylar edi. Xo`tan, Yorkent, Qashqar, Yangihisor, Oqsuv, Uchturpon, Kucha, Qorashar, Turpan va Kumul kabi yirik shaharlari bo'lgan. U 1705-yilda Jungor xoni Sevan Rabtan tomonidan bosib olinmaguncha, taxminan 200 yil davomida mintaqada hukmronlik qildi.

XIV asrning birinchi yarmida parchalanib ketgan Chigʻatoy xonligining gʻarbiy qismida 1370-yilda Amir Temur imperiyasi vujudga keldi va 1508-yilda Shayboniylar tomonidan bosib olinmaguncha mintaqada hukmron kuchga aylandi. Uning sharqiy qismi Mo'g'uliston bo'lib, u 1347-yilda Tug'luq Temurxon tomonidan qayta tashkil etilgan bo'lib, poytaxti Ili daryosi vodiysi atrofidagi Olmaliqda joylashgan. U Sharqiy Qashgʻariyaning barcha oʻtroq yerlarini, shuningdek, XVI—XVII asrlardagi Balx va hind manbalariga koʻra, oʻsha paytda Uygʻuriston deb atalgan Turpan va Kumul viloyatlarini oʻz ichiga olgan. Yorkent xonligining hukmron sulolasi bir asrdan ortiq yashagan ushbu davlatdan ajralib chiqqan.

1509-yilda Tarim havzasining vassali boʻlgan duglatlar Moʻgʻuliston xonligiga qarshi qoʻzgʻolon koʻtarib, ajralib chiqishadi. Besh yil o'tgach Turfondagi Mo'g'uliston xonining ukasi Sulton Saidxon duglatlarni bosib olib, o'zining Yorkent xonligini tashkil etdi.[2][1]

Bu esa 1220-yildan boshlab, Chigʻatoyxonning oʻzi tomonidan berilganidan buyon u hududlarni boshqargan Dugʻlat amirlarining Qashgʻariya shaharlaridagi hukmronligiga chek qoʻydi. Dug`latlarning zabt etilishi Yorkent davlatining mintaqadagi yetakchi kuchga aylanishiga imkon berdi.

Sulton Saidxon hukmronligi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Sulton Saidxon hukmronligiga xojalar katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi.[3] Saidxon oʻz amakivachchasi, Himoloy va Qoraqurum tizmasi boʻylab Yorkent xonligigacha Boburiylar imperiyasining asoschisi Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur bilan ham yaqin munosabatda boʻlgan.[1]

Saidxon hukmronligi davrida 1527—1528-yillarda Bolorga,[4][5] 1529-yilda Badaxshonga, 1532-yilda Ladax va Kashmirga talonchilik yurishlari[6] uyushtiradi. Sulton Said Xon 1533-yilda Ladax va Kashmirga yurishlardan Yorkentga qaytayotganda togʻda oʻpka shishi tufayli Davlat beg Oldi qarorgohida vafot etgan.[6][7][8][9]

Keyingi xonlar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Sulton Saidxondan keyin Abdurashidxon (1533–1565) taxtga oʻtirdi. U oʻz hukmronligini Dug`latlar oilasi aʼzosini qatl etishdan boshladi. Abdurrashidxon g'arbiy Mo'g'ulistonni nazorat qilish uchun qirg'izlar va qozoqlarga qarshi kurashdi, ammo g'arbiy Mo'g'uliston oxir-oqibatda boyb berildi. Shundan so'ng Mo'g'ullar asosan Tarim havzasi hududlari bilan cheklanib qolishdi.[10]

Ayni paytda, 1678—1705-yillarda Oltishahr [lower-alpha 1]ning jungʻorlar tomonidan egallanishi natijasida Yorkent xonligi Jungʻor xonligi tomonidan to`liq bosib olindi[11]

Galereya[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Izohlar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  1. According to M.Kutlukov, Altishahr historically was a union of 6 cities: four cities in Western Kashgaria-Hotan, Yarkand, Kashgar, Yengihisar and two cities in Eastern Kashgaria: Uchturpan and Aksu. Cities that were located east of Aksu, such as Kucha, Karashar, Turpan and Kumul, were not included in Altishahr. This division first appeared in the 15th century during the struggle between Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat and the Moghul Khans of Moghulistan, when Mirza Abu Bakr managed to separate Altishahr into an independent state called Mamlakati Yarkand with its capital in Yarkand that he ruled for 48 years from 1465 till 1514. The Moghul khans then managed to establish control of the most of former Uyghuria (856–1389), mediaval state of Buddhist/ Nestorian/ Manichaenian Kingdom, that included Kucha, Karashar, Turpan, Kumul and Beshbaliq. That state submitted to Chengiz Khan in 1211 under Idikut Baurchuk Art Tekin and joined Mongol Empire as its 5th Ulus and this way retained independence till 1389, when was conquered by Khizr Khoja, son of Tughluk Timur Khan (founder of Moghul Dynasty (1347-1930), last ruler of which Maqsud Shah of Kumul Khanate died in 1930), who spread Islam among population of Uyghuria. In 1462 Moghul Khan Dost Muhammad managed to wrest Aksu from Dughlat Amirs, later Yunus Khan (1462–1487) spread influence of Moghul Khans till Turpan and Kumul and the settled part of the country south of Tengri Tagh under Moghul Khans became known at this time as Uyghurstan as opposite to the nomadic Moghulistan north of Tengri Tagh. In 1514 Sultan Said Khan put an end to this division and united all territory south of Tengri Tagh from Kashgar to Kumul in one centralized state, known in different sources as Kashgar and Uyghurstan (Mahmud ibn Wali, Balkh, 1640), Saidiyya, Kashgar Khanate or more properly Yarkand Khanate, that existed under dominance of Yarkand Khans till 1706 and under dominance of Khojas till 1759 when it was conquered by Qing China.

Manbalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 Bano, Majida (2002). „Mughal relations with the Kashghar Khanate“. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 63-jild. 1116–1119-bet. JSTOR 44158181. „The Kashghar Khanate (whose capital was actually Yarkand) was established when Sa'id Khan (d.1533), a Mongol Muslim ('Moghul') prince invaded the Tarim basin and overthrew the local ruler Mirza Abu Bakr in 1514. [...] Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, and Sa'id Khan were cousins, and the relationship was recognised in Babu'r memories. In a sense the Khanate and the Mughal Empire were built together, though there could be no military cooperation between the two, given the heights of the Hamalayas and the Karakoram Range that separated the two states.“
  2. Grousset 1970.
  3. Grousset, p. 500
  4. Holdich, Sir Thomas Hungerford. Tibet: The Mysterious. Frederick A. Stokes, 1906 — 61 bet. 
  5. Cacopardo, Alberto M.. Gates of Peristan: History, Religion and Society in the Hindu Kush. Istituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente, 2001 — 47 bet. ISBN 9788863231496. „Mirza Haidar who led in 934/1527-28 an Islamic incursion into "Balur", describing it as "an infidel country (Kafiristan)" inhabited by "mountaineers" without any "religion or a creed" (Mirza Haidar 1895: 384), located "between Badakhshan and Kashmir" (ibid.: 136).“ 
  6. 6,0 6,1 Baumer, Christoph. History of Central Asia, The: 4-volume set. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2018. ISBN 978-1838608675. 
  7. Albert von Le Coq. Buried Treasures of Chinese Turkestan: An Account of the Activities and Adventures of the Second and Third German Turfan Expeditions. Taylor & Francis, 14-dekabr 2018-yil — 292 bet. ISBN 978-0-429-87141-2. „Daulat Bak Oldi (the royal prince died here), close to the Karakorum pass, is so called because the Sultan Said Khan of Kashgar, on his return from a successful campaign against West Tibet, died here from mountain sickness (Plate 50)“ 
  8. Howard, Neil; Howard, Kath (2014), „Historic Ruins in the Gya Valley, Eastern Ladakh, and a Consideration of Their Relationship to the History of Ladakh and Maryul“, in Lo Bue, Erberto; Bray, John (muh.), Art and Architecture in Ladakh: Cross-cultural Transmissions in the Himalayas and Karakoram, 68–99-bet, ISBN 9789004271807: "When his Khan decided to return home because of ill health, leaving Mirza Haidar to destroy "the idol temple of Ursang (i.e. Lhasa)", he "set out from Maryul in Tibet, for Yarkand". He "crossed the pass of Sakri", which must be that above Sakti (not the Kardung pass as Elias and Ross suggest), descended to Nubra and died at a camping place named Daulat Beg Uldi which is two-and-a-half hours below the Karakoram Pass."
  9. Bhattacharji, Romesh. Ladakh - Changing, yet Unchanged. Rupa Publications Pvt Ltd, 7-iyun 2012-yil. ISBN 978-8129117618. „Some 400 years earlier, in ad 1527, a Yarkandi invader, Sultan Saiad Khan Ghazi (also known as Daulat Beg) of Yarkand, briefly conquered Kashmir after fighting a battle along this pass. He died in 1531 at Daulat Beg Oldi (meaning, where Daulat Beg died) at the foot of the Karakoram pass, after he was returning from an unsuccessful attempt to invade Tibet.“ 
  10. Grousset, pp. 499–500
  11. Adle, Chahryar (2003), History of Civilizations of Central Asia 5, 193-bet

Adabiyotlar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  • Saray Mehmet, Doğu Turkistan Tarixi (Başlangıçtan 1878'e kadar), Bayrak Matbaacılık, Istanbul-1997
  • Kutlukov M, Yarkent xonligining tashkil topishi haqida (1465-1759), Pan nashriyoti, Olmata, 1990
  • 0813513049