Oscar Pistorius

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Oscar Pistorius
Oscar Pistorius in Warsaw (cropped).jpg
Toʻliq ismi Oscar Leonard Carl Pistorius
Mamlakat Janubiy Afrika
Tugʻilishi 22-noyabr 1986-yil (1986-11-22) (35 yosh)
Janubiy Afrika
Boʻyi 1.6 metre (5.2 ft) sm
Faoliyati tugashi 2020
Soʻnggi marta yangilandi: 29 August 2018.

 

Oskar Leonard Karl Pistorius (1986-yil 22-noyabrda tugʻilgan) — Janubiy Afrikalik sobiq professional sprinter.[1] Tugʻma nuqsoni tufayli 11 oylik boʻlganida ikkala oyogʻi ham kesilgan; u ikkala oyogʻining tashqi tomoni va ikkala fibuladan mahrum boʻlib tugʻilgan. Pistorius nogiron boʻlmagan sprint musobaqalarida ham, nogiron boʻlganlar uchun sprint musobaqalarida ham ishtirok etgan. U Paralimpiya va Olimpiya oʻyinlarida qatnashgan oʻninchi sportchi edi.

Paralimpiya chempioni boʻlganidan soʻng, Pistorius Xalqaro yengil atletika federatsiyalari assotsiatsiyasining (XYAFA) qatʼiy eʼtirozlari va sunʼiy oyoq-qoʻllari adolatsiz ustunlik berganligi haqidagi dalillar tufayli nogiron boʻlmagan xalqaro musobaqalarga kirishga harakat qildi. Ushbu huquqiy bahsda Pistorius ustunlik qildi. 2011-yilgi yengil atletika boʻyicha jahon chempionatida Pistorius nogiron boʻlmagan jahon trek medalini qoʻlga kiritgan birinchi amputant boʻldi. 2012-yilgi Yozgi Olimpiya oʻyinlarida Pistorius ikki oyogʻi amputatsiya qilingan birinchi ishtirokchisi boʻlgan.

2013-yilning 14-fevralida Pistorius Pretoriyadagi uyida qiz do‘sti, advokat va model Reeva Steenkampni otib o‘ldirdi. U Stinkampni hammomda yashiringan bosqinchi bilan adashtirganini aytdi. U hibsga olindi va qotillikda ayblangan . Keyingi yil sudda Pistorius qotillikda emas, balki aybdor odam oʻldirishda aybdor deb topildi.[2] [3] [4] U aybdor odam oʻldirish uchun besh yillik qamoq jazosiga hukm qilindi va alohida guruhga mansub boʻlganligi uchun bir vaqtning oʻzida uch yil shartli qamoq jazosiga hukm qilindi.[5] [6]

Pistorius 2015-yilda uy qamog‘iga vaqtincha ozod qilingan, uning ishi Janubiy Afrika Oliy Apellyatsiya sudi hay’atiga apellyatsiya shikoyati bo‘yicha topshirilgan, sud aybli odam o‘ldirish haqidagi hukmni bekor qilgan va uni qotillikda ayblagan. [7] [8] 2016-yilning iyulida sudya Tokozile Masipa Pistoriusning qamoq muddatini olti yilga uzaytirdi.[9] Shtatning uzoqroq qamoq jazosi uchun shikoyatiga binoan Oliy Apellyatsiya sudi qamoq muddatini jami 15 yilga oshirdi.[10] Pistorius 2023-yilda shartli ravishda ozodlikka chiqish huquqiga ega boʻladi.

Yoshlik[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Oskar Leonard Karl Pistorius Xenke va Sheyla Pistorius oilasida 1986-yil 22-noyabrda Janubiy Afrikaning o‘sha paytdagi Transvaal provinsiyasi (hozirgi Gauteng viloyati) bo‘lgan Yoxannesburgdagi Sandton shahrida tug‘ilgan.[11] U nasroniylar xonadonida [12] uning akasi Karl va singlisi Aimee bilan oʻsgan.[13] [14] Pistorius 15 yoshida 43 yoshli onasining vafot etgani hayotiga katta taʼsir koʻrsatadi.[15] [16] Pistorius afrikanerlar oilasidan boʻlib, uning onasi tomonidan Keniyaga italiyalik muhojir boʻlgan bobosining qisman italyan kelib chiqishi.[17] Afrikaan tili uning ona tili va u ingliz tilini ham yaxshi biladi [18] [19]

Pistorius ikkala oyogʻida ham fibulyar hemimeliya (tugʻma fibulaning yoʻqligi) bilan tugʻilgan. U o‘n bir oylik bo‘lganida ikkala oyog‘i tizzalari va to‘piqlari orasidan yarmigacha kesilgan. [20] U Constantia Kloof boshlangʻich maktabida qatnashdi [21] va Pretoria Boys High School, [11] [22] u erda maktabning uchinchi XV jamoasida regbi ittifoqida oʻynadi.[23] U 11 yoshdan 13 yoshgacha viloyat darajasida suv polosi va tennis bilan shugʻullangan [23] Bundan tashqari, Pistorius klub Olimpiya kurashida ishtirok etgan [23] [24] [25] va Pretoriyadagi Janni Bruksning garaj sport zalida mashq qilgan. Bruksning taʼkidlashicha, u Pistoriusning „oyoqlari yoʻqligini“ payqashga olti oy kerak boʻlgan, ammo shunga qaramay, „boks, sakrash va press-up“ kabi koʻplab mashqlarni bajara olgan.[26]

Sport faoliyati[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Pistorius 2007 yil iyul oyida Islandiyaning Kopavogur shahridagi Landsmót ungmennafélags Íslands orollarida.

Pistorius T44 (tizza ostidagi bitta amputatsiya) musobaqalarida qatnashgan, garchi u T43 (tizza ostidagi ikki marta amputatsiya) toifasiga kiritilgan boʻlsa ham. [27] Baʼzan u „Blade Runner“ va „Eng tez oyoqsiz odam“ deb nomlangan [25] [28] [29] Pistorius 2004 yilda Afinada boʻlib oʻtgan yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlarida qatnashgan va T44 [25] 100 -da umumjamoa hisobida uchinchi oʻrinni egallagan. [30] U 21,97 natija bilan jahon rekordini oʻrnatgan finalda gʻalaba qozondi soniyada bir juft amerikalik yuguruvchi Marlon Shirli va Brayan Frasureni bitta amputatsiya bilan magʻlub etdi.[30]

Pistorius 2008 yilda Pekinda boʻlib oʻtgan yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlarida 100, 200 va 400 masofalarda qatnashgan. (T44). 9-sentyabrda 11.16 soniya natija bilan Paralimpiya rekordini oʻrnatdi . [31] Keyinchalik, sekin boshlanganidan soʻng, u 100-metr da amerikalik Jerom Singletondan oltin yutib olish uchun yigʻildi. 11.17 vaqt ichida soniya, 0,03 kumush medal sohibidan soniyalar oldinda. [32] Toʻrt kundan soʻng, 13 sentyabr kuni 200 metrga yugurish boʻyicha amaldagi Paralimpiya chempioni [33] 21,67 soniya natija bilan ikkinchi oltin medalini qoʻlga kiritdi. , [34] yana bir Paralimpiya rekordini oʻrnatdi. [31] U 400 metr da oltin yutib, xet-trikni yakunladi — 47,49 soniyada teng boʻlgan jahon rekordi , [35] uni „hayotimning oxirigacha men bilan qoladigan xotira“ deb ataydi. [36]

Protezlar boʻyicha bahslar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Pistorius oʻzining protezlarida 2011 yil 8 sentyabrda Londonning Trafalgar maydonida Xalqaro Paralimpiya kuni tadbirida

Pistoriusning sunʼiy aʼzolari unga tabiiy toʻpiqlari va oyoqlari boʻlgan yuguruvchilardan ustunlik beradi, degan daʼvolar tufayli tanqidga uchragan. U biotibbiyot muhandisi Van Phillips tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan va Össur tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan " Flex-Foot Gepard " deb nomlangan J shaklidagi uglerod tolali protezlar hisoblanadi.[25]

2007-yil 26-martda IAAF musobaqa qoidalariga o‘zgartirish kiritib, „o‘z ichiga prujinalar, g‘ildiraklar yoki boshqa elementni o‘z ichiga olgan har qanday texnik qurilmadan foydalanuvchiga bunday qurilmadan foydalanmaydigan boshqa sportchiga nisbatan ustunlik beradi“.[37] IAAFning taʼkidlashicha, tuzatish Pistoriusga qaratilgan emas. Uning adolatsiz ustunlik bilan yugurayotganligini aniqlash uchun IAAF 13 iyul kuni Rimdagi italiyalik yuguruvchilarga qarshi poygasini suratga olish uchun yuqori aniqlikdagi kameralar yordamida uning trekdagi chiqishlarini kuzatdi va uning 2007-yil 15-iyulda Sheffilddagi 400 metrlik musobaqada , [28] [38] u oxirgi oʻrinni egalladi. [39]

2012-yil yozgi Olimpiya oʻyinlari[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Pistorius 2011 yil Janubiy Koreyaning Daegu shahrida boʻlib oʻtgan yengil atletika boʻyicha jahon chempionatida

2012 yil 4 avgustda boʻlib oʻtgan 2012 yilgi Yozgi Olimpiya oʻyinlarida Pistorius Olimpiya oʻyinlarida qatnashish uchun debyut amputant yuguruvchiga aylandi.[40] 400 metrga yugurishda u beshta yuguruvchining birinchi bosqichida 45,44 oniya natija bilan ikkinchi o‘rinni egalladi. (oʻsha mavsumda uning eng yaxshi natijasi) 5 avgust kuni yarim finalga chiqish uchun. [41] U ikkinchi yarim finalda yugurib, 46,54 soniya natija bilan sakkizinchi va oxirgi o‘rinni egalladi.[42] [43]

2012-yil yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlari[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Pistorius 29 avgust kuni 2012 yilgi Yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlarining ochilish marosimida ham bayroqni koʻtargan edi. [44]

Pistorius 2012 yilgi yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlarining ochilish marosimida bayroqni koʻtarib turibdi
Pistorius 400 m T44 finalida gʻalaba qozonganidan keyin

Yutuqlar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Nogironlar uchun sport tadbirlari[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Janubiy Afrikaning The Citizen gazetasi IAAF Pistoriusni musobaqalardan chetlashtirish haqidagi qarorini eʼlon qildi. — 2008 yil 16 yanvarda Yoxannesburgda suratga olingan
Vaqt (soniya) Natija Tadbir
100 m (T44)
10.91[45]

Oltin Jismoniy nogironlar uchun Nedbank chempionati

Germiston, Gauteng, Janubiy Afrika

11.16[46] Bronza 2004 yil Yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlari

Afina, Gretsiya

11.17[32] Oltin 2008 yil yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlari

Pekin, Xitoy Xalq Respublikasi

11.23[47] Oltin 2005 Visa Paralimpiya Jahon kubogi

Manchester, Angliya, Buyuk Britaniya

11.32[48] Oltin 2006 IPC atletika boʻyicha jahon chempionati

Assen, Niderlandiya

11.34[49] Kumush 2011 IPC atletika boʻyicha jahon chempionati

Christchurch, Yangi Zelandiya

11.42[50] Oltin Sportfest

Duysburg, Germaniya

11.48[51] Oltin Gollandiya ochiq milliy chempionati

Emmeloord, Niderlandiya

11.62[48] Oltin Qoʻshma Shtatlar
200 m (T44)
21.52[52]
Kumush 2012 yil yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlari

London, Angliya, Buyuk Britaniya

21.58[53]

Oltin Jismoniy nogironlar uchun Nedbank chempionati

Germiston, Gauteng, Janubiy Afrika

21.67[34]

Oltin 2008 yil yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlari

Pekin, Xitoy Xalq Respublikasi

21.77[54] Oltin Germaniya ochiq milliy chempionati

Berlin, Germaniya

21.80

Oltin 2006 IPC atletika boʻyicha jahon chempionati

Assen, Niderlandiya

21.80[49] Oltin 2011 IPC atletika boʻyicha jahon chempionati

Christchurch, Yangi Zelandiya

21.97[46] Oltin 2004 yil Yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlari

Afina, Gretsiya

22.01[55]

Oltin 2005 Visa Paralimpiya Jahon kubogi

Manchester, Angliya, Buyuk Britaniya

22.04[56] Oltin Gollandiya ochiq milliy chempionati

Emmeloord, Niderlandiya

22.71[48] Oltin AQSh Endeavour oʻyinlari

AQSH

400 m (T44)
46.68[57]
Oltin 2012 yil yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlari

London, Angliya, Buyuk Britaniya

47.49[35]

Oltin 2008 yil yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlari

Pekin, Xitoy Xalq Respublikasi

47.92[51] Oltin Gollandiya ochiq milliy chempionati

Emmeloord, Niderlandiya

48.37[49] Oltin 2011 IPC atletika boʻyicha jahon chempionati

Christchurch, Yangi Zelandiya

49.42[48] Oltin 2006 IPC atletika boʻyicha jahon chempionati

Assen, Niderlandiya

4 × 100 m (T42-T46)
41.78[58]

Oltin 2012 yil yozgi Paralimpiya oʻyinlari

London, Angliya, Buyuk Britaniya

42.80[49] Oltin 2011 IPC atletika boʻyicha jahon chempionati

Christchurch, Yangi Zelandiya

Nogiron boʻlmaganlar oʻrtasidagi sport tadbirlari[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Vaqt (soniya) Natija Tadbir
400 m
45.07 [48]

Birinchi oʻrin Internazionale di Atletica Sports Solidarity bilan uchrashuv



45,44 [41]



(mavsumiy eng yaxshi)
1-turda 16-o‘rin



(51 sportchidan)
2012 Yozgi Olimpiya oʻyinlari


London, Buyuk Britaniya
45,52 [59] Kumush Yengil atletika boʻyicha 2012 Afrika chempionati



Porto-Novo, Benin
46,56 [60] Kumush 2007 yil kattalar oʻrtasidagi Janubiy Afrika milliy chempionati



Durban, Janubiy Afrika
4 × 400 m estafeta
2 min 59,21 s [61] Kumush 2011 yil yengil atletika boʻyicha IAAF jahon chempionati



Daegu, Janubiy Koreya
3 min 04.01 s [62] Kumush Yengil atletika boʻyicha 2012 Afrika chempionati



Porto-Novo, Benin

Qoʻshimcha oʻqish uchun[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Manbalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  1. Onishi, Norimitsu. „Oscar Pistorius Guilty in Murder of Reeva Steenkamp, Appeals Court Rules“ (3-dekabr 2015-yil). Qaraldi: 3-dekabr 2015-yil.
  2. Germaner, Shain. „Oscar: the verdict is in“. The Star (12-sentabr 2014-yil). Qaraldi: 12-sentabr 2014-yil.
  3. Phipps, Claire. „Oscar Pistorius verdict: judge to rule on culpable homicide“. The Guardian (12-sentabr 2014-yil).
  4. Davies, Lisa. „Oscar Pistorius is a convicted killer, but not a murderer“. Sydney Morning Herald (12-sentabr 2014-yil). Qaraldi: 12-sentabr 2014-yil.
  5. Germaner, Shain. „Oscar gets 5 years for Reeva's death“. The Star (21-oktabr 2014-yil). Qaraldi: 21-oktabr 2014-yil.
  6. „Oscar Pistorius sentenced to 5 years in jail“. News24 (21-oktabr 2014-yil). Qaraldi: 21-oktabr 2014-yil.
  7. „Oscar Pistorius verdict changed to murder – Oscar Pistorius guilty of murdering Reeva Steenkamp“. BBC News Online (3-dekabr 2015-yil). Qaraldi: 3-dekabr 2015-yil.
  8. Onishi, Norimitsu. „Oscar Pistorius Guilty in Murder of Reeva Steenkamp, Appeals Court Rules“ (3-dekabr 2015-yil). Qaraldi: 3-dekabr 2015-yil.
  9. „Oscar Pistorius given six years for Reeva Steenkamp murder“. BBC News (6-iyul 2016-yil). Qaraldi: 6-iyul 2016-yil.
  10. „SCA increases Oscar Pistorius's murder sentence to 13 years“. News 24. Qaraldi: 24-noyabr 2017-yil.
  11. 11,0 11,1 Mr. Oscar "Oz" Pistorius, Who's Who of Southern Africa, 24.com, archived from the original on 27 April 2009, https://web.archive.org/web/20090427150438/http://www.whoswhosa.co.za/Pages/profilefull.aspx?IndID=5404, qaraldi: 18 May 2007 Oscar Pistorius]]
  12. Nico Bougas (9 June 2012), Enabled not disabled: Oscar Pistorius: 'The fastest thing on no legs', Assistnews.net, archived from the original on 17 August 2012, https://web.archive.org/web/20120817091931/http://www.assistnews.net/Stories/2012/s12060047.htm 
  13. De Jong Borchardt (18 June 2008), 30 minutes with Oscar Pistorius, University of Pretoria, archived from the original on 27 August 2008, https://web.archive.org/web/20080827142307/http://web.up.ac.za/default.asp?ipkCategoryID=5573&articleID=709 
  14. Robert Philip (27 April 2005), "Pistorius masters quick step", The Daily Telegraph (London), archived from the original on 11 January 2022, https://ghostarchive.org/archive/20220111/https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/olympics/2358775/Pistorius-masters-quick-step.html 
  15. Paralympics 2012: Oscar Pistorius beaten by Alan Oliveira in 200m, BBC Sport, 2 September 2012, https://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/disability-sport/19460868 
  16. Tom English (5 August 2011), "London 2012 Olympics: 'Blade runner' Oscar Pistorius becomes first amputee to qualify for Olympic heat", The Scotsman, http://www.scotsman.com/scotland-on-sunday/sport/london-2012-olympics-blade-runner-oscar-pistorius-becomes-first-amputee-to-qualify-for-olympic-heat-1-2450651 
  17. Bozza, Gennaro. „Pistorius bionico? "No, solo un uomo"“ (it). La Gazzetta dello Sport (11-iyul 2007-yil).
  18. „How the Oscar Pistorius trial became a mirror on South African society | World news“. The Guardian (9-fevral 2016-yil). Qaraldi: 8-iyul 2016-yil.
  19. „Oscar Pistorius: a troubling symbol of South Africa's new, squeezed, Afrikaner society of the cities“. The Independent. Qaraldi: 15-oktabr 2015-yil.
  20. Josh McHugh (March 2007), "Blade Runner", Wired 15 (3), https://www.wired.com/wired/archive/15.03/blade.html 
  21. Oscar Pistorius; Rebecca Servadio-Kenan, transl. (2009), Blade Runner, London: Virgin Books, p. 33, ISBN 978-0-7535-1939-4 
  22. Gareth A. Davies (6 October 2004), "Olympics within amputee's reach", The Daily Telegraph (London), archived from the original on 11 January 2022, https://ghostarchive.org/archive/20220111/https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/olympics/2388009/Olympics-within-amputees-reach.html 
  23. 23,0 23,1 23,2 Gareth A. Davies [interviewer] (23 May 2007), "My sport: Oscar Pistorius", The Daily Telegraph (London), https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/mysport/2312850/My-Sport-Oscar-Pistorius.html 
  24. Jeré Longman (15 May 2007), "An amputee sprinter: Is he disabled or too-abled?", The New York Times: A1 & A21, https://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/15/sports/othersports/15runner.html 
  25. 25,0 25,1 25,2 25,3 Oscar Pistorius, Össur, http://www.ossur.com/?PageID=3364, qaraldi: 22 March 2008 Oscar Pistorius]]
  26. „The making and unmaking of Oscar Pistorius – BBC News“. Bbc.com (3-noyabr 2015-yil). Qaraldi: 25-sentabr 2016-yil.
  27. „Pistorius Oscar“. IPC.InfostradaSports.com. International Paralympic Committee. 8-mart 2014-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 9-avgust 2012-yil.
  28. 28,0 28,1 Tom Knight (11 July 2007), "Pistorius is no novelty sprinter", The Daily Telegraph (London): S12, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/athletics/2316794/Pistorius-is-no-novelty-sprinter.html 
  29. "Amputee sprinter second in Rome", BBC News, 14 July 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/6898504.stm 
  30. 30,0 30,1 „Oscar Pistorius“. Paralympic.org. International Paralympic Committee.
  31. 31,0 31,1 Records: As of Sep 17 2008, Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games, Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, 17 September 2008, archived from the original on 18 September 2008, https://web.archive.org/web/20080918131935/http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/REC/index.shtml, qaraldi: 17 September 2008 Oscar Pistorius]]
  32. 32,0 32,1 Oscar wins gold, Independent Online, 9 September 2008, http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?click_id=4&art_id=iol1220955045481O260&set_id=, qaraldi: 10 September 2008 Oscar Pistorius]]; "Pistorius wins 100 meters at Paralympic Games in Beijing", International Herald Tribune, 9 September 2008, http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/09/09/sports/PARA.php ; "Oscar Pistorius grabs gold", The Times (South Africa), 9 September 2008, archived from the original on 8 January 2009, https://web.archive.org/web/20090108133235/http://www.thetimes.co.za/Sport/Article.aspx?id=839628 ; Matthew Pryor (10 September 2008), "Oscar Pistorius wins Paralympic 100 metres title", The Times (London), http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article4719123.ece 
  33. Andrew McGarry (29 August 2008), Oscar Pistorius: Speed demon by any name, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/08/29/2349850.htm?site=paralympics/2008/athletes, qaraldi: 7 September 2008 Oscar Pistorius]]; "Pistorius targets treble to forget troubles", China Daily, 7 September 2008, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/paralympics/2008-09/07/content_7005689.htm 
  34. 34,0 34,1 Jeff Z. Klein (13 September 2008), "Day 7: Second gold for Pistorius; Iran forfeits before potential game vs. Israel", The New York Times, http://beijing2008.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/09/13/day-7-second-gold-for-pistorius-iran-forfeits-before-potential-game-vs-israel/ ; "Oscar Pistorius's blades of glory in Beijing", The Times (South Africa), 13 September 2008, archived from the original on 8 January 2009, https://web.archive.org/web/20090108121810/http://www.thetimes.co.za/Sport/Article.aspx?id=842887 ; 'Blade Runner' keeps triple-gold dream alive at Beijing Paralympics, Xinhua News Agency, 13 September 2008, archived from the original on 18 September 2008, https://web.archive.org/web/20080918090134/http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-09/13/content_9981361.htm 
  35. 35,0 35,1 Day 10: 'Blade Runner' completes gold treble, China hits 200-medal mark, Xinhua News Agency, 16 September 2008, archived from the original on 19 September 2008, https://web.archive.org/web/20080919035347/http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-09/16/content_10043476.htm, qaraldi: 17 September 2008 Oscar Pistorius]]
  36. Matt McGeehan (17 September 2008), "Weir powers down home straight to win second gold: … Oscar Pistorius takes his third gold of the Games", The Guardian (London), https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2008/sep/17/paralympics20081 . See also Weir storms to second Games gold, BBC Sport, 17 September 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7618070.stm 
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  38. Simon Hart (15 July 2007), "Blade Runner Oscar Pistorius furious at IAAF", The Daily Telegraph (London), archived from the original on 11 January 2022, https://ghostarchive.org/archive/20220111/https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/athletics/2317046/Blade-Runner-Oscar-Pistorius-furious-at-IAAF.html 
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