Meksika: Versiyalar orasidagi farq

Navigatsiya qismiga oʻtish Qidirish qismiga oʻtish
206 bayt olib tashlandi ,  1 yil oldin
Teglar: Qaytarildi Mobil tahrirlash Mobil dastur orqali tahrirlash
Teglar: Qaytarildi Mobil tahrirlash Mobil dastur orqali tahrirlash
M. - federal republic. The Political Constitution of the United Mexican States of February 5, 1917, which came into force, was subsequently amended. The head of state is the president (Vi-sente Fox Kesada since 2000), who is elected by universal suffrage for a six-year term. Under the constitution, the president cannot be re-elected. Legislative power is exercised by the National Congress (bicameral parliament), while executive power is exercised by the president.
 
== TabiatiNature ==
The coasts of M. are less fragmented, the largest peninsulas being California and the Yucatan. Several islands in the Pacific Ocean are also part of the M. Most of the country is covered by the mountains of Mexico (mostly 1000-2000 m high, the highest point - the active Orisaba volcanoes - 5700 m). Plains near the coast are flat. An oil and gas basin in the Gulf of Mexico, non-ferrous metal ores (copper, lead, pyx, silver, mercury, arsenic, antimony, cadmium, bismuth, tin, tungsten, gold) in the mountains of Mexico, coal, iron and uranium ores, gold in the northeast. . The climate is tropical, subtropical in the north. The average temperature in January is 10 ° -25 °, and in July 15 ° -30 °. Annual precipitation on the slopes is 2000–3000 mm.
M. qirgʻoqlari kam parchalangan, eng katta yarim orollari — Kaliforniya va Yukatan. Tinch okeandagi bir necha orol ham M. tarkibiga kiradi. Mamlakat hududining katta qismini Meksika togʻligi (aksariyat balandligi 1000–2000 m, eng baland joyi — harakatdagi Orisaba vulkanlari — 5700 m) egallaydi. Sohilga yaqin joylari pasttekislik. Meksika qoʻltigʻida neftgazli havza, Meksika togʻligida rangli metall rudalari (mis, qoʻrgʻoshin, pyx, kumush, simob, margimush, surma, kadmiy, vismut, qalay, volfram, oltin), mamlakatning Shimoli-sharqida toshkoʻmir, temir va uran rudalari, oltingugurt konlari bor. Iqlimi tropik, shimolida subtropik iqlim. Yanvarning oʻrtacha temperaturasi 10°—25°, iyulniki 15°—30°. Yillik yogʻin togʻ yon bagʻirlarida esa 2000–3000 mm.
 
Janubi-sharqidaThere daryosoylarare koʻp,many shimoli-gʻarbidarivers in the southeast and few in the kamnorthwest (Yukatanthere yarimis oroldano umumanrunning oqarwater suvat yoʻqall on the Yucatan Peninsula). Yirik daryolariMajor rivers: Rio-Grande (Rio-Bravodel-Norte), Lerma (quyidownstream oqimidacalled Rio-Grandede Santyago deb ataladiSantiago), Balsas, Grixalva - Usumasinta dareriver sistemasisystem. Eng kattaThe kulilargest ash is Chapala. Shimoli-gʻarbida, asosanIn the northwest, boʻzmainly tuproqgray vasoils choʻlgaand xoscommon oddiydesert tuproqlarsoils; togʻliklarda surjigarrangIn the highlands there are red-brown, jigarrrangbrown, savanna qizilred tuproqlarisoils vaand togʻmountain-oʻrmonforest qoʻngʻirbrown tuproqlarisoils, pasttekisliklardain surjigarrangthe lowlands there are red-brown, savanna qizil tuproqlarired vasoils botqoqand tuproqlariswamp uchraydisoils.
 
The plants are very diverse. There are about 12,000 species of plants in M.; 2/3 of them are endemic plants. Much of northern Mexico is dominated by xerophilous vegetation, as well as semi-deserts and deserts with mimosa shrubs. In the southern part of the mountains and on the surrounding lowland shores, savanna plants consisting of cereals and shrubs grow, and in the mountains, deciduous and mixed forests (oak, hornbeam, linden, pine, spruce, etc.) grow; There are mostly tropical forests in the southern and southeastern parts of the country, evergreen sernam forests on the eastern slopes, coniferous forests on the western slopes, and deciduous forests in the foothills.
Oʻsimliklari juda xilma-xil. M.da oʻsimliklarning 12 mingga yakin turi bor; shulardan 2/3 qismi endemik oʻsimliklardir. Meksika togʻligining shimoliy kattaroq qismida uziga xos kserofil oʻsimliklar, shuningdek, mimozadosh butalar oʻsadigan chala choʻl va choʻllar asosiy oʻrin tutadi. Togʻliqning janubiy qismida va bu yerlarni oʻrab olgan pasttekislik sohillarida boshoqlilar va sertikan butalardan iborat savanna oʻsimliklari, togʻlarda bargli va aralash oʻrmonlar (dub, grab, joʻka, karagay, oqqaragʻay va boshqalar) usadi; M.ning janubiy va janubi-sharqiy qismlarida aksari tropik oʻrmonlar, sharqiy yon bagʻirlarida doim yashil sernam oʻrmonlar, gʻarbiy yon bagʻirlarida igna bargli, togʻ etaklarida barg toʻkadigan oʻrmonlar bor.
 
Among the wild animals, rodents in the semi-deserts and steppes are the earth mouse, the coyote, the black bear, the raccoon, the red lynx, the cougar, the deer in the savannas, the antelope, the jayra, and the southern tropical forests. jaguar occurs. More than 50 parks have been established to protect wildlife, flora and other unique sites. The largest: Cumbreode-Monterrey, Sierrade-San PedroMartir, Can-ondelrio Blanco and others
Yovvoyi hayvonlardan chala choʻl va choʻllarda kemiruvchilar — yer qazir (yer sichqon), koyot (yaylov boʻrisi), Meksika togʻligi oʻrmonlarida qora ayiq, yenot, kizil silovsin, puma, savannalarda bugʻu, chumolixoʻr, jayra, janubiydagi tropik oʻrmonlarda maymunning 2 turi, tapir, yaguar uchraydi. Hayvo-not, oʻsimlik dunyosi va boshqa noyob joylarni qoʻriqlash maqsadida 50 dan koʻproq bogʻ tashkil etilgan. Eng yiriklari: Kumbreode-Monterrey, Syerrade-San-PedroMartir, Kan-ondelrio Blanko va boshqa
 
The majority of the population is Mexican, consisting of Indians and ethnic groups, immigrants from Europe (mainly Spain), and Africans brought to plantations. More than half of the population are mestizos and mulattoes born of mixed marriages. Indigenous peoples have partially preserved their languages ​​and cultures. There are Spaniards, Basques, Germans, French, Italians and more. The official language is Spanish. 96% of believers are Catholics. 73% of the population lives in cities. Major cities: Mexico, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Leon, Ciudad Juarez.
Aholisining kupi meksikanlar boʻlib, ular indeys kabilalari va elatlari, Yevropa (asosan, Ispaniya)dan kuchib kelganlar va plantatsiyalarda ishlatish uchun keltirilgan afrikaliklardan iborat. Aholining yarmidan ortigʻi aralash nikoxdan tugʻilgan metis va mulatlardir. Tub indeys xalqlari oʻz tillari va madaniyatlarini qisman saqlab qolgan. Ispanlar, basklar, nemislar, fransuzlar, italyanlar va boshqa ham bor. Rasmiy til — ispan tili. Dindorlarning 96% katoliklar. 73% aholi shaharlarda yashaydi. Yirik shaharlari: Mexiko, Gvadalahara, Monterrey, Leon, Syudad-Xuares.
 
== Tarixi ==

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