Loyiha atamasi

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Loyiha — yakka tartibda yoki hamkorlikda amalga oshiriladigan, tadqiqot yoki dizaynni oʻz ichiga olgan, maʼlum bir maqsadga erishish uchun ehtiyotkorlik bilan rejalashtirilgan har qanday tashabbus[1].

Boshqaruv nuqtai nazaridan loyihaning muqobil koʻrinishi voqealar ketma-ketligiga asoslanadi: „belgilangan vaqt davomida va maʼlum xarajatlar va boshqa cheklovlar doirasida bajarilishi kerak boʻlgan oʻzaro bogʻliq vazifalar toʻplami“[2].

Loyiha vaqtinchalik ijtimoiy tizim (mehnat tizimi) boʻlishi mumkin, ehtimol vaqt cheklovlari ostida muayyan vazifalarni bajarish uchun jamoalar bilan taʼminlangan boʻladi[3].

Loyiha dastur boshqaruvining bir qismini tashkil qilishi mumkin[4] yoki maxsus tizim sifatida ishlashi mumkin[5].

Umumiy koʻrinishi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Loyiha soʻzi lotincha proicere, „harakat oldidan“ feʼlidan kelib chiqqan boʻlib, u oʻz navbatida pro- dan kelib chiqqan va u ustuvorlikni bildiradi (vaqt oʻtishi bilan boshqa narsadan oldin keladigan narsa (yunoncha prō) va iacere, „qilmoq“). Shunday qilib, „loyiha“ soʻzi dastlab „harakatdan oldin“ degan maʼnoni anglatadi.

Ingliz tili bu soʻzni dastlab qabul qilganda, u ushbu rejani amalga oshirish harakatiga emas, balki biror narsaning rejasiga ishora qildi. Loyihaga muvofiq bajarilgan narsa " obyekt " sifatida tanildi. Har bir loyiha rivojlanishning maʼlum bosqichlariga ega.

Loyihani boshqarish institutiga asoslanib, loyiha jamoalar, tashkilotlar yoki jamiyatlarda oʻzgarishlarni amalga oshirishga qaratilgan „vaqtinchalik harakat“ sifatida belgilanishi mumkin. Loyihaning natijasi odatda yangi mahsulot turi, xizmat yoki natija hisoblanadi[6].

Loyihani boshqarish sohasi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Loyiha muammo, ehtiyoj, istak yoki noqulaylik manbai (masalan, binoda toʻgʻri ventilyatsiya yoʻqligi) bilan duch kelganda idrok etilgan imkoniyatdan kelib chiqqan aniq va uyushgan harakatlardan iborat. U mahsulot, xizmat, jarayon yoki baʼzi hollarda ilmiy tadqiqot kabi noyob va innovatsion mahsulotni amalga oshirishga intiladi. Har bir loyihaning boshlanishi va oxiri bor[7].  U loyihani boshqarishning 4 ta punkti boʻyicha ishlab chiqilgan: Reja, jarayonlar, odamlar va kuch (masalan, vakolat doirasi).  U uch xil cheklovlar bilan bogʻlangan boʻlib, ular kalendar, xarajatlar va sifat meʼyorlari[8]. Ularning har biri loyihaning hayot aylanishi davomida obyektiv ravishda aniqlanishi va oʻlchanishi mumkin.  Baʼzi loyihalar rasmiy hujjatlarni, natijalarni (lar) va ijobiy yoki salbiy boʻlishi mumkin boʻlgan baʼzi taʼsirlarni ishlab chiqaradi[9].

Maxsus foydalanish[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Maktab va universitet[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Loyiha — bu talabalar tomonidan puxta rejalashtirilgan va oʻrganiladigan individual yoki hamkorlikdagi korxona. Maktablarda, taʼlim muassasalarida va universitetlarda loyiha — bu talabaga beriladigan tadqiqot topshirigʻi boʻlib, u odatda oddiy insho topshirigʻiga qaraganda koʻproq kuch va mustaqil ishni talab qiladi. Bu talabalardan kutubxona, internet tadqiqotlari yoki empirik maʼlumotlarni toʻplash orqali faktlarni aniqlash va tahlil qilishlarini talab qiladi. Loyihadan keladigan yozma hisobot odatda dissertatsiya shaklida boʻlib, unda loyihaning boshlanishi, tahlili, topilmalari va xulosalari boʻlimlari mavjud[10].

Loyiha boshqaruvi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Loyiha boshqaruvida loyiha yangi mahsulot, xizmat yoki natijani yaratish uchun qilingan vaqtinchalik harakatlardan iborat[11]. Boshqa bir taʼrif, belgilangan biznes holatiga koʻra, bir yoki bir nechta biznes mahsulotlarini yetkazib berish maqsadida yaratilgan boshqaruv muhitidir[12]. Loyihalarni vaqtinchalik tashkilotlar sifatida ham koʻrish mumkin[13].

Loyihaning maqsadlari loyiha yakunida maqsadli maqomni belgilaydi, unga erishish rejalashtirilgan foydalarga erishish uchun zarur deb hisoblanadi. Ular SMART mezonlari sifatida shakllantirilishi mumkin: Loyihalar koʻpincha boshqaruvchi guruh tomonidan boshqariladi[14].

  • Maxsus
  • Oʻlchanadigan (yoki hech boʻlmaganda baholanadigan) yutuq
  • Mavjud (Yaqinda kelishilgan yoki qabul qilingan)
  • Haqiqiy (tashkiliy resurslarning hozirgi holatini hisobga olgan holda)
  • Vaqt (chegaralangan)

Baholash (oʻlchash) loyihaning yopilishida amalga oshiriladi. Biroq, monitoring va baholash orqali loyihaning borishini doimiy ravishda kuzatib borish kerak.

Fuqarolik, harbiy qurilish va sanoat infratuzilmasi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Fuqarolik, harbiy va sanoat (masalan, neft va gaz) infratuzilmasida kapital loyihalar asbob-uskunalar, inshootlar va binolarni qurish va oʻrnatish boʻyicha faoliyatni nazarda tutadi. Ushbu faoliyat boshlanish va tugash sanalari aniq boʻlgan vaqtinchalik harakatlar boʻlgani uchun „loyiha“ atamasi qoʻllaniladi. Ushbu faoliyat natijalari odatda yillar yoki oʻn yilliklar bilan oʻlchanadigan uzoq muddatli infratuzilma boʻlganligi sababli, bu loyihalar moliyaviy buxgalteriya hisobida kapital xarajatlar sifatida hisobga olinadi va shuning uchun ular „kapital loyihalar“ deb nomlanadi.

Kompyuter dasturi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Kompyuter dasturiy taʼminotida loyiha dasturlar, konfiguratsiya taʼriflari va tegishli maʼlumotlardan iborat boʻlishi mumkin.  Misol uchun, Microsoft Visual Studioda „yechim“ loyihalar va boshqa taʼriflardan iborat[15].

Davlat loyihasi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Buni „muayyan masala yoki reja atrofida birlashtirilgan davlat siyosati yoki idoralar toʻplami“ sifatida aniqlash mumkin[16]. Shu sababli, bunday loyihalar vaqt oʻtishi bilan rivojlanayotgan ijtimoiy tuzilmalar tufayli doimiy oʻzgarish va dinamiklikni oʻz ichiga oladi. Davlat loyihalari hozirgi zamonga moslashishi kerak. Ular ijtimoiy xizmatlarga asoslangan boʻladi.

Turlari[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Loyihaga yoʻnaltirilgan faoliyatning baʼzi tahlillari harbiy uslubdagi terminologiyadan foydalangan holda — ulkan strategik loyihalar va ahamiyatsiz yoki tarkibiy operatsion loyihalar oʻrtasida farqlanadi[17][18]:

Misollar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Loyihalar bilan bogʻliq mavzular[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  • Megaloyiha
  • Dastur boshqaruvi
  • Loyiha boshqaruvi
  • Loyihani boshqarish instituti (PMI)
  • Xalqaro loyihalarni boshqarish assotsiatsiyasi (IPMA)
  • Loyihani boshqarish dasturi
  • Loyihani rejalashtirish
  • Kichik miqyosdagi loyihalarni boshqarish
  • SHAHZODA2

Manbalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  1. Compare: „definition of project in English from the Oxford dictionary“. Oxford Dictionaries (2016). — „Definition of project project in English: [...] An individual or collaborative enterprise that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim [...]“. 30-iyul 2012-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 6-sentabr 2016-yil.
  2. „What is a project? definition and meaning“. BusinessDictionary.com. — „project [:] [...] Planned set of interrelated tasks to be executed over a fixed period and within certain cost and other limitations.“. Qaraldi: 10-iyun 2018-yil.
  3. Compare the somewhat circular definition: Manning, Stephan (2008). "Embedding projects in multiple contexts – a structuration perspective". International Journal of Project Management 26: 35. doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2007.08.012. http://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=862024094122112093080083112015005007102003037074039062086004071064098080028066102031038026119061045028111104026005080093087017117075046037076115083091111070107105071021091020126026123026084009120094112087103099025073006064086007029122065028016073007&EXT=pdf. Qaraldi: 2016-09-06. "Two theoretical propositions have been made: First, projects as temporary systems are characterized by certain structural properties, in particular task specifications, time constraints and team relations, that guide project activities." Loyiha atamasi]]
  4. Mittal, Prashant „Programme Management: An Introduction“,. Programme Management: Managing Multiple Projects Successfully. New Delhi: Global India Publications, December 2009 — 1 bet. ISBN 9789380228204. 13-iyun 2021-yilda qaraldi. „Programme Management is the process of managing multiple independent projects [...]. [...] Projects deliver outputs; programmes create outcomes. [...] Programme management is concerned with doing the right projects, whereas project management is about doing projects right.“ 
  5. For example: Kuijper, Pieter Jan. The Law of EU External Relations: Cases, Materials, and Commentary on the EU as an International Legal Actor. Oxford University Press, 5 September 2013 — 922 bet. ISBN 9780199682478. 13-iyun 2021-yilda qaraldi. „One or more participating Member States or the Chief Executive may submit to the Steering Board an ad hoc project or programme within the Agency's remit, which shall presume general participation by the participating Member States.“ 
  6. Project Management Institute. A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK guide), Project Management Institute, 6th, Newtown Square, PA, 2017. ISBN 978-1-62825-390-0. OCLC 995162610. 
  7. Mesly, Olivier. Project Feasibility: Tools for Uncovering Points of Vulnerability, Systems Innovation Book Series. New York: CRC Press, 2016 — 53 bet. ISBN 9781315295237. 17-iyun 2019-yilda qaraldi. „For the purpose of a feasibility analysis, a project is a concrete and organized effort that leads to the realization of a unique and innovative deliverable, which can be a product, service or process, or even a science research initiative, which is conceived based on a perceived opportunity. The project has a beginning and an end, which can sometimes serve as a new bedrock for a different project. It involves a plan, some processes, people and a line of authority; it contains inherent challenges and problems.“ 
  8. Mesly, Olivier. Project Feasibility: Tools for Uncovering Points of Vulnerability, Systems Innovation Book Series. New York: CRC Press, 2016 — 53 bet. ISBN 9781315295237. 17-iyun 2019-yilda qaraldi. „For the purpose of a feasibility analysis, a project [...] is bound by a specific calendar, a cost structure and pre-set norms of quality.“ 
  9. Mesly, Olivier. Project Feasibility: Tools for Uncovering Points of Vulnerability, Systems Innovation Book Series. New York: CRC Press, 2016 — 52 bet. ISBN 9781315295237. 17-iyun 2019-yilda qaraldi. „Figure 1.5[:] Toward a definition of an average project. [...] The outputs, according to my model, are expressed by a deliverable (e.g., a product), by some formal knowledge [...], and by some impacts (positive and/or negative). [...] As mentioned, small projects do not naturally lead to formalized knowledge or have an impact. Large projects, however, see the creation of some form of official knowledge and do have impacts on the way of life of the population they serve.“ 
  10. Thomas, G: How to do your research project. Sage Publications Inc, 2009….
  11. Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), Third Edition.
  12. R. Max Wideman (2004), A Management Framework: For Project, Program and Portfolio Integration. p. 30
  13. Turner, J. Rodney, and Ralf Müller. „On the nature of the project as a temporary organization.“ International journal of project management 21.1 (2003): 1-8.
  14. Carr, David, Make Sure Your Project Goals are SMART, PM Hut. Accessed 18. Oct 2009.
  15. Compare: Hundhausen, Richard. Working with Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 Team System, 2, Developer Reference Series, Microsoft Press, 2006 — 108 bet. ISBN 9780735621855. 10-fevral 2017-yilda qaraldi. „After a design has been validated the Application Designer will generate a skeleton implementation with projects, code, and configuration files that precisely match the design.“ 
  16. Deric., Shannon. Political sociology : oppression, resistance, and the state. Pine Forge Press, 2011-01-01. ISBN 9781412980401. OCLC 746832550. 
  17. Banks, Linda. „What Is a Strategic Project?“. Houston Chronicle. Hearst Newspapers, LLC. Qaraldi: 9-fevral 2017-yil. „Organizations can be good at tactical projects, such as moving to a new building or introducing a new product. These are projects that have one operational goal, which probably does not entail contributions by most employees within the organization. In these projects, meeting a tactical goal on time and within budget are key considerations. A strategic project, on the other hand, has a primary goal of gaining the competitive advantage by focusing on the organization's overall direction.“.
  18. Williams, Todd C. „15: Dealing with 'Unprojects'“,. Rescue the Problem Project: A Complete Guide to Identifying, Preventing, and Recovering from Project Failure. AMACOM Division: American Management Association, 2011 — 208 bet. ISBN 9780814416839. 9-fevral 2017-yilda qaraldi. „The strategic project has a long-term goal to satisfy needs not included in the funding project. [...] a strategic project usually has scope as its most critical issue, while a tactical project has schedule, cost, or a different set of scope as the primary constraint.“