Louise Glück

Vikipediya, ochiq ensiklopediya
Navigatsiya qismiga oʻtish Qidirish qismiga oʻtish
Louise Glück
Louise Glück circa 1977.jpg
Tavalludi
Louise Elisabeth Glück

22-aprel 1943-yil (1943-04-22) (79 yosh)
New York shahri
Fuqaroligi Qoʻshma Shtatlar AQSH
Kasbi Yozuvchi
Turmush oʻrtogʻi Jon Dranou (1977–1996)
Taʼlimi
Faoliyat yillari 1968- hozirga qadar
Mukofotlari
  • She'riyat uchun Pulitzer mukofoti (1993-yil)
  • Bollingen mukofoti (2001-yil)
  • Milliy kitob mukofoti (2014-yil)
  • Milliy gumanitar fanlar medali (2015-yil)
  • Adabiyot bo'yicha Nobel mukofoti (2020-yi;)
Bolalari 1 ta

Louise Elisabeth Glück (ɡlɪk, GLICK[1][2]; 1943-yil 22-aprelda tugʻilgan) — Amerikalik shoira va essenavis. U adabiyot bo'yicha 2020-yilda Nobel mukofotiga sazovor bo'ldi[3]. Uning boshqa mukofotlari orasida Pulitzer mukofoti, Milliy gumanitar fanlar medali, Milliy kitob mukofoti va Bollingen mukofoti bor. U 2003-yildan 2004-yilgacha Qo'shma Shtatlar shoiri laureati bo'lgan.

Glück New-Yorkda tug'ilgan va Long-Islandda o'sgan. U o'rta maktabda nevroz anoreksiyasi bilan og'riy boshladi va keyinchalik kasallikni yengdi. U Sara Lourens kolleji va Kolumbiya universitetida o'qigan, ammo ilmiy darajaga ega bo'lmagan. U yozuvchi boʻlishdan tashqari bir qancha ilmiy muassasalarda she’riyatdan dars bergan.

Glück ko'pincha avtobiografik shoir sifatida tasvirlanadi, uning ishi o'zining hissiy intensivligi, shaxsiy tajriba va zamonaviy hayotni aks ettirish uchun mifologiya yoki tabiat tasvirlaridan tez-tez foydalanishi bilan ajralib turadi.

Glück - Yel universitetining she'riyat professori. U o'z vaqtini Massachusets shtatidagi Cambridge va Vermont shtatidagi Montpelier universitetlariga ajratishga harakat qilasi[4][5]

Biografiya[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Glück 1943-yil 22-aprelda New-Yorkda tug'ilgan. U biznesmen Daniel Glück va uy bekasi Beatris Glückning tirik qolgan ikki qizining kattasi hisoblanadi[6].

Glückning onasi asli rus yahudiysi bo'lgan[7]. Uning bobosi va buvisi Teresia va Henrik Glück, o'sha paytdagi Vengriya Qirolligi, Avstriya-Vengriya imperiyasi (hozirgi Ruminiya) hududida, Bixar tumanidagi Ermihayfalvadan venger yahudiylari edi, uning bobosi Feldmann és Glück daraxt kesish kompaniyasini boshqargan[8][9]. Ular 1900-yil dekabr oyida Qoʻshma Shtatlarga ko'chib o'tib oziq ovqat do'konini yurita boshlashdi[10]. Glückning otasi Amerika Qoʻshma Shtatlarida tugʻilgan va u yozuvchi boʻlishni xohlardi, lekin qaynogʻasi bilan biznesga kirishdi. Ular birgalikda X-Acto pichog'ini ixtiro qilganlarida muvaffaqiyatga erishdilar[11]. Glükning onasi Uelsli kollejini bitirgan. Bolaligida Glükning ota-onasi unga yunon mifologiyasini va Janna d'Arkning hayoti kabi klassik hikoyalarni o'rgatishgan. U yoshligidanoq she'r yozishni boshlagan.

O'smirlik davrida Glükda nevroz anoreksiya rivojlandi[12][13], bu uning o'smirligi va erta balog'at yoshidagi asosiy muammoga aylandi. Bir maqolada u kasallikni onasidan mustaqilligini isbotlashga urinish natijasi deb ta'riflagan. Boshqa joyda u oʻzining kasalligini opasining oʻlimi bilan bogʻlagan. New-Yorkning Xyulett shahridagi Jorj Xyulett o'rta maktabida u psixoanalitik davolanishni boshladi. Bir necha oy o'tgach, 1961-yilda o'rta maktabni tugatgan bo'lsa-da, reabilitatsiyaga e'tibor qaratish uchun ta'limdan voz kechdi. Bu qarori haqida u shunday deb yozgan: Men qachondir o'lishimni angladim, aniqroq, intuitivroq bilganim shundaki, o'lishni xohlamaganman.[14]. U keyingi etti yilni terapiyada o'tkazdi, uning aytishicha, bu unga kasalligini yengishga yordam bergan va qanday fikrlashni o'rgatgan[15].

Ahvoli tufayli Glük kollejga kunduzi o'qiydigan talabalar bilan bormadi. U terapiya foydasiga oliy ma'lumotdan voz kechish qarorini zarur deb ta'rifladi: ... mening hissiy holatim, xatti-harakatlarimning haddan tashqari qattiqligi va marosimlarga o'ta qaramligim o'rganishning boshqa shakllarini imkonsiz qildi[16]. Buning oʻrniga u Sara Lourens kollejida sheʼriyat darslarida qatnashdi va 1963—1966-yillarda Kolumbiya universitetining umumiy fanlar maktabidagi sheʼriyat to'garaklarida qatnashdi, ularda ilmiy darajaga ega boʻlmagan talabalarga kurslar taklif qilinar edi[17][18][19]. U yerda Leoni Adams va Stenli Kunitzdan tahsil oldi.U bu oʻqituvchilarni shoir sifatida yetishishida muhim ustozlar deb bilgan.

Karyera[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

She'riyat to'garaklarida qatnashayotganda Glük she'rlarini nashr eta boshladi. Uning birinchi nashri Mademoiselle jurnalida boʻlib, tez orada “Poetry”, “The New Yorker”, “The Atlantic Monthly”, “The Nation” va boshqa nashrlarda she’rlari chop etildi[20][21]. Kolumbiyani tark etgach, Glük o'zini kotiblik ishlari bilan band qildi[22]. U 1967-yilda kichik Charlz Gertsga turmushga chiqdi[23]. 1968-yilda Glük oʻzining birinchi sheʼrlar toʻplami Firstbornni nashr etdi va tanqidchilarning olqishiga sazovor boʻldi. Sharhda shoir Robert Xass kitobni og'ir, badiiy va og'riqli deb ta'riflagan[24]. Nashr qilinganidan keyin Glükk uzoq vaqt davomida xech narsa yoza olmdi, uning aytishicha, u Vermontdagi Goddard kollejida she'riyatdan dars bera boshlagan 1971-yildan keyin tuzalgan[25][26]. Bu vaqt ichida yozgan she'rlari uning ikkinchi kitobi The House on Marshland (1975),da to'plangan bo'lib, ko'plab tanqidchilar uning yutuq ishi sifatida baholadilar[27].

1973-yilda Glük Noah ismli farzandni dunyoga keltirdi[28]. Kichik Charlz Xerts bilan nikohi ajralish bilan yakunlandi va 1977-yilda u Goddard kollejida yozgi yozuvchilik dasturini boshlagan muallif Jon Dranoga turmushga chiqdi[29]. 1980-yilda Dranou va shoir Ellen Bryant Voigtning eri Frensis Voigt xususiy tijorat kolleji sifatida Nyu-England pazandachilik institutiga asos solishdi. Glük va Brayant Voigt institutning dastlabki sarmoyadorlaridan bo'lgan va direktorlar kengashida ishlagan[30].

1980-yilda Glükning Descending nomi ostida uchinchi to'plami chiqdi. U o'zining ohangi va mavzusi uchun bir oz tanqidga uchradi: masalan, shoir Greg Kuzma Glyukni The Drowned Children she'ri tufayli bolalarni yomon ko'rishda aybladi[31]. Umuman olganda, kitob yaxshi qabul qilindi. Meri Kinzi The American Poetry Review jurnalida kitobni yuqori baholadi[32]. Shoir va tanqidchi J. D. Makklatchi «She'riyat» asarida yozganida, bu kitob Glükning avvalgi ishiga nisbatan oldinga sezilarli qadam va yilning eng yaxshi kitoblaridan biri ekanligini ta'kidladi. O'sha yili Glükning uyi yong'inga uchradi , bu uning mulkining ko'p qismini yo'qotishiga olib keldi. [26]

Ushbu fojiadan so'ng Glük she'r yozishni boshladi, keyinchalik uning mukofotga sazovor bo'lgan The Triumph of Achilles (1985) asari to'planadi. The New York Timesning jurnaliti yozuvchi va tanqidchi Liz Rosenberg to'plamni Glyukning oldingi ishiga qaraganda aniqroq, tozaroq va keskinroq deb ta'riflagan[33]. The Georgia Review jurnalida yozgan tanqidchi Piter Stittning ta'kidlashicha, kitob Glükning zamonamizning muhim shoirlaridan biri ekanligini ko'rsatadi[34]. Toʻplamdan feministik madhiyaga qiyoslangan «Mock Orange» sheʼri[35] «antologiya» deb atalgan[36].

1984-yilda Glük Massachusets shtatidagi Uilyams kolleji fakultetiga ingliz tili kafedrasida katta o'qituvchi sifatida ishga kirdi[37]. Uning otasi keyingi yili vafot etdi[38]. Bu yoʻqotish uni Ararat (1990) nomli yangi sheʼrlar toʻplamini boshlashga undadi, uning nomi Ibtido kitobidagi suv toshqini haqidagi hikoyaga ishora qiladi. 2012-yilda The New York Times uchun yozgan tanqidchi Duayt Garner uni so'nggi 25 yil ichida nashr etilgan Amerika she'riyatining eng zo'ravon va qayg'uli kitobi deb atadi. Ushbu toʻplamdan soʻng Glük oʻzining eng mashhur va tanqidiy eʼtirofga sazovor boʻlgan kitoblaridan biri «The Wild Iris» (1992)ni chiqardi, unda bogʻ gullari bogʻbon va xudo bilan hayotning tabiati haqida suhbatlashadi. U Weekly tomonidan «poetry of great beauty» aks etgan "important book" sifatida e'tirof etilgan[39]. The Christian Science Monitor uchun yozgan tanqidchi Elizabet Lund buni «a milestone work» deb atadi[40]. 1993-yilda u Pulitzer mukofotini qo'lga kiritib, Glükning taniqli amerikalik shoir sifatidagi obro'sini mustahkamladi[41].

1990-yillar Glükga adabiy muvaffaqiyat olib kelgan bo'lsa-da, bu shaxsiy mashaqqatli davr edi. Uning Jon Dranou bilan nikohi 1996-yilda ajralish bilan yakunlandi, bu holat ularning biznes munosabatlariga ta'sir qildi, natijada Dranou Nyu-England pazandachilik institutidagi lavozimidan chetlatildi[42][43]. Glük o'z tajribalarini ijodiga yo'naltirdi va faoliyatining samarali davriga yetib keldi. 1994-yilda u «Proofs & Theories: Essays on Poetry» deb nomlangan insholar to'plamini nashr etdi. Keyin u sevgining tabiati va nikohning tanazzuliga oid she'rlar to'plamini «Meadowlands» (1996) yaratdi[44]. U yana ikkita to'plamni yaratdi: «Vita Nova» (1999) va «The Seven Ages» (2001).

2004-yilda, 2001-yil 11-sentabrdagi teraktlarga javoban Glük Oktabr nomli kitobni nashr etdi. Olti qismga bo'lingan bitta she'rdan iborat bo'lib, u jarohat va azob-uqubatlarni o'rganish uchun qadimgi yunon mifologiyasiga tayanadi[45]. O'sha yili u Yel universitetida Rozenkranz yozuvchisi unvoniga sazovor bo'ldi[46].

Yel fakultetiga qo'shilganidan beri Glük she'rlar nashr etishda davom etdi. Uning shu davrda nashr etilgan kitoblari orasida “Averno” (2006), «A Village Life» (2009), «Faithful and Virtuous Night»(2014) bor. 2012-yilda uning yarim asrlik she’rlaridan iborat «Poems: 1962–2012» nomli toʻplamining nashr etilishi adabiy voqelik deb ataldi[47]. Uning yana bir insholar toʻplami «American Originality» deb nomlangan va 2017-yilda chop etilgan[48].

2020-yil oktabr oyida Glük adabiyot boʻyicha Nobel mukofoti bilan taqdirlandi va bu mukofot 1901-yilda taʼsis etilganidan beri adabiyot boʻyicha oʻn oltinchi ayol laureati boʻldi[49]. COVID-19 pandemiyasi sabab boʻlgan cheklovlar tufayli u oʻz mukofotini uyida qabul qilib oldi[50]. 2021-yilda Glükning «Winter Recipes from the Collective» to'plami nashr etildi. 2022-yilda u Yeldagi she’riyat amaliyoti boʻyicha Frederik Iseman professori unvoniga sazovor boʻldi[51].

Oila[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Glükning katta opasi Glük tug'ilishidan oldin vafot etgan. Uning singlisi Tereza (1945–2018) Citibankda vitse-prezident boʻlib ishlagan undan tashqari yozuvchilik bilan ham shug'ullangan, 1995-yilda «May You Live in Interesting Times» kitobi uchun Ayova shtatidagi qisqa fantastika mukofotini qoʻlga kiritgan[52]. Glükning jiyani Abigayl Savage aktrisalik bilan shug'ullanadi[53].

Faoliyat[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Silk-film.png Tashqi videofayllar
Silk-film.png Bu video lavhada Lannan jamg'armasining 2016-yilgi tadbirida Glük o'z she'rini o'qib muhokama qilib bergan. (9 daqiqa)

Glükning ishi akademik tadqiqot mavzusi bo'lgan va shunday bo'lib qoladi. Uning hujjatlari, jumladan, qoʻlyozmalar, yozishmalar va boshqa materiallar Yel universitetining Beyneke nomli noyob kitoblar va qoʻlyozmalar kutubxonasida saqlanadi[54].

Kitoblari[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Sherlar to'plami[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Omnibus nashrlari[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Kitoblari[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

To'plamlar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Mukofotlar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  • Rokfeller fondi stipendiyasi (1967)[55]
  • Milliy san'at jamg'armasi stipendiyasi (1970)[56]
  • Ijodiy san'at bo'yicha Guggenxaym stipendiyasi (1975)[57]
  • Milliy san'at jamg'armasi stipendiyasi (1979)[58]
  • Amerika san'at va adabiyot akademiyasining adabiyot bo'yicha mukofoti (1981)[59]
  • Ijodiy san'at bo'yicha Guggenxaym stipendiyasi (1987)[60]
  • Milliy san'at jamg'armasi stipendiyasi (1988)[61]
  • Uilyams kollejining faxriy doktori (1993)[62]
  • Amerika sanʼat va fanlar akademiyasi aʼzosi (1993)[63]
  • Vermont shtati shoiri (1994–1998)[64]
  • Skidmor kollejining faxriy doktori (1995)[65]
  • Midlberi kollejining faxriy doktori (1996)[66]
  • Amerika san'at va adabiyot akademiyasi, saylangan a'zosi (1996)[67]
  • Lannan adabiy mukofoti (1999)[68]
  • Massachutes texnologiya instituti gumanitar fanlar, san'at va ijtimoiy fanlar maktabining, 50 yillik yubiley medali, (2001)[69]
  • Bollingen mukofoti (2001)[70]
  • Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari shoir mukofoti laureati (2003–2004)[71]
  • Amerika shoirlari akademiyasining Uolles Stivens mukofoti (2008)[72]
  • Zamonaviy Amerika she'riyati uchun Eyken Teylor mukofoti (2010)[73]
  • Amerika yutuqlar akademiyasi, faxriy a'zosi (2012)[74]
  • Amerika falsafa jamiyati, faxriy a'zosi (2014)[75]
  • Amerika san'at va adabiyot akademiyasi she'riyat uchun oltin medali (2015)[76]
  • Milliy gumanitar fanlar medali (2015)[77]
  • Transtremer mukofoti (2020)[78]
  • Adabiyot boʻyicha Nobel mukofoti (2020)[79]
  • Dartmut kollejining faxriy doktori (2021)[80]

Alohida ishlari uchun mukofotlar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  • «The Triumph of Achilles» uchun Melvil Keyn mukofoti (1985)[81]
  • «The Triumph of Achilles» uchun Milliy kitob tanqidchilari to'garagi mukofoti (1985)[82]
  • «Ararat» uchun Rebekka Johnson Bobbitt milliy she'riyat mukofoti (1992)[83]
  • «The Wild Iris» uchun William Carlos William mukofoti (1993)[84]
  • «The Wild Iris» uchun Pulitzer mukofoti (1993)[85]
  • «Proofs & Theories: Essays on Poetry» uchun PEN/Marta Albrand Birinchi Non-fantastik mukofoti (1995)[86]
  • «Vita Nova» uchun Ambassador Kitob mukofoti (2000)[87]
  • «Averno» uchun Ambassador Kitob mukofoti (2007)[88]
  • «Averno» uchun LL Winship/PEN New England mukofoti (2007)[89]
  • Los-Anjeles Timesning she'riyat uchun mukofoti 1962–2012 (2012)[90]
  • «Faithful and Virtuous Night» uchun Milliy kitob mukofoti (2014)[91]

Bundan tashqari, «The Wild Iris», «Vita Nova» va «Averno» Milliy kitob mukofotining finalchilari bo'ldi[92]. «The Seven Ages» Pulitzer mukofoti va Milliy kitob tanqidchilari toʻgaragi mukofotining finalchisi edi[93]. «A Village Life» Milliy kitob tanqidchilari toʻgaragi mukofoti va Griffin xalqaro sheʼriyat mukofoti finalchisi bo'lgan[94]

Manbalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  1. https://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-54447291
  2. https://www.loc.gov/nls/about/organization/standards-guidelines/efgh/#g
  3. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/literature/2020/summary/
  4. https://us.macmillan.com/author/louisegluck/
  5. https://www.sevendaysvt.com/vermont/book-review-winter-recipes-from-the-collective-louise-gluck/Content?oid=34704087
  6. https://archive.org/details/poetrylouisegluc00morr
  7. https://archive.org/details/poetrylouisegluc00morr
  8. https://szombat.org/tortenelem/az-ertol-az-oceanig-a-nobel-dijas-louise-e-gluck-magyar-gyokerei
  9. https://scotty-berlin.de/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/AJW07-10.pdf
  10. https://scotty-berlin.de/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/AJW07-10.pdf
  11. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/2003/08/29/gluck-to-be-poet-laureate/c168beab-27d5-4b4d-8156-e5b6dbe99598/
  12. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/2003/08/29/gluck-to-be-poet-laureate/c168beab-27d5-4b4d-8156-e5b6dbe99598/
  13. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/09/books/louise-gluck-poems-1962-2012.html
  14. Глюк, Луиза. Доказательства и теории: Очерки поэзии. п. 11.
  15. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/glu0int-1
  16. Глюк, Луиза. Доказательства и теории: Очерки поэзии. п. 13.
  17. Моррис, Дэниел. Поэзия Луизы Глюк: тематическое введение. п. 28.
  18. https://books.google.com/books?id=noCrAgAAQBAJ&q=%22louise+gluck%22+columbia+1963&pg=PA252
  19. https://arts.columbia.edu/news/louise-gl%C3%BCck-2020-winner-nobel-prize-literature
  20. Зуба, Джесси (2016). Первая книга: Поэтическая карьера двадцатого века в Америке. Принстон: Издательство Принстонского университета. п. 128.
  21. https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/books/book-world-louise-glucks-poems-1962-2012/2012/12/27/c54fa088-4a02-11e2-ad54-580638ede391_story.html
  22. https://www.neh.gov/humanities/2016/fall/feature/louise-gl%C3%BCck
  23. Моррис, Дэниел (2006). Поэзия Луизы Глюк: тематическое введение. п. 29.
  24. https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-133018719/assembling-a-landscape-the-poetry-of-louise-gluck
  25. https://www.neh.gov/humanities/2016/fall/feature/louise-gl%C3%BCck
  26. https://books.google.com/books?id=uTBCXqOou0YC&q=louise+gluck+vermont+encyclopedia&pg=PA138
  27. Morris, Daniel. The Poetry of Louise Glück: A Thematic Introduction. p. 4.
  28. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/2003/08/29/gluck-to-be-poet-laureate/c168beab-27d5-4b4d-8156-e5b6dbe99598/
  29. https://www.sevendaysvt.com/vermont/vermonts-struggling-culinary-school-plans-its-next-course/Content?oid=2332056
  30. https://www.sevendaysvt.com/vermont/vermonts-struggling-culinary-school-plans-its-next-course/Content?oid=2332056
  31. http://faculty.washington.edu/elgeorge/The%20harsher%20figure%20of%20descending%20figure.pdf
  32. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27777028
  33. https://www.nytimes.com/1985/12/22/books/geckos-porch-lights-and-sighing-gardens.html
  34. Stitt, Peter (1985). "Contemporary American Poems: Exclusive and Inclusive". The Georgia Review. 39 (4): 849–863.
  35. http://blog.pshares.org/index.php/speaking-against-silence/
  36. https://communications.williams.edu/news-releases/poet-louise-gluck-at-williams-college-awarded-coveted-bollingen-prize/
  37. https://communications.williams.edu/news-releases/poet-louise-gluck-at-williams-college-awarded-coveted-bollingen-prize/
  38. https://www.liherald.com/fivetowns/stories/a-zest-for-life-beatrice-glck-of-woodmere-dies-at-101,33097?
  39. https://www.publishersweekly.com/978-0-88001-281-2
  40. https://www.csmonitor.com/1993/0107/07141.html
  41. https://www.pulitzer.org/winners/louise-gluck
  42. https://www.sevendaysvt.com/vermont/vermonts-struggling-culinary-school-plans-its-next-course/Content?oid=2332056
  43. https://issuu.com/7days/docs/012600-vol.05-no.22
  44. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/louise-gluck
  45. Azcuy, Mary Kate (2011), "Persona, Trauma and Survival in Louise Glück's Postmodern, Mythic, Twenty-First-Century 'October'", Crisis and Contemporary Poetry, Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 33–49,
  46. https://yaledailynews.com/blog/2004/11/09/gluck-waxes-poetic-on-work/
  47. https://theamericanscholar.org/creative-paralysis/
  48. https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/29939146-american-originality
  49. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2020/oct/08/louise-gluck-wins-the-2020-nobel-prize-in-literature
  50. https://apnews.com/article/europe-oslo-nobel-prizes-coronavirus-pandemic-berlin-2eff5024db4fab77e46ead2f39f4bf20
  51. https://news.yale.edu/2022/05/11/louise-gluck-named-frederick-iseman-professor-practice-poetry
  52. https://writersworkshop.uiowa.edu/about/iowa-short-fiction-awards
  53. https://www.legacy.com/obituaries/nytimes/obituary.aspx?n=tereze-gluck&pid=191030681&fhid=10713
  54. https://archives.yale.edu/repositories/11/resources/5489/collection_organization
  55. https://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/Annual-Report-1967-1.pdf
  56. https://www.arts.gov/grants/recent-grants/literature-fellowships/list-by-year?field_year_value=All&field_lit_fellows_type_value=3&title=Louise+Gluck
  57. https://www.gf.org/fellows/all-fellows/louise-gluck/
  58. https://www.arts.gov/grants/recent-grants/literature-fellowships/list-by-year?field_year_value=All&field_lit_fellows_type_value=3&title=Louise+Gluck
  59. https://artsandletters.org/awards/
  60. https://www.gf.org/fellows/all-fellows/louise-gluck/
  61. https://www.arts.gov/grants/recent-grants/literature-fellowships/list-by-year?field_year_value=All&field_lit_fellows_type_value=3&title=Louise+Gluck
  62. https://commencement.williams.edu/honorary-degrees/
  63. https://www.amacad.org/person/louise-elisabeth-gluck
  64. https://www.amacad.org/person/louise-elisabeth-gluck
  65. https://www.skidmore.edu/news/2020/1008-gluck.php
  66. http://www.middlebury.edu/newsroom/archive/archive/1998/node/264220
  67. http://www.middlebury.edu/newsroom/archive/archive/1998/node/264220
  68. https://lannan.org/literary/detail/louise-gluck
  69. http://web.mit.edu/shass/soundings/issue_01s/dep_celebration_01s.html
  70. https://bollingen.yale.edu/poet/louise-gluck
  71. https://bollingen.yale.edu/poet/louise-gluck
  72. https://poets.org/academy-american-poets/prizes/wallace-stevens-award
  73. http://thesewaneereview.com/aiken-taylor-award
  74. https://achievement.org/our-history/golden-plate-awards/#the-arts
  75. https://achievement.org/our-history/golden-plate-awards/#the-arts
  76. https://achievement.org/our-history/golden-plate-awards/#the-arts
  77. https://www.neh.gov/about/awards/national-humanities-medals/louise-gl%C3%BCck
  78. https://www.svt.se/nyheter/lokalt/vastmanland/poeten-louise-gluck-far-transtromerpriset-2020
  79. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/literature/2020/summary/
  80. https://president.dartmouth.edu/news/2021/06/dartmouth-confers-honorary-degrees-seven-remarkable-recipients
  81. The Triumph of Achilles
  82. https://www.bookcritics.org/awards/past/
  83. https://www.loc.gov/poetry/prize-fellow/bobbitt.html
  84. https://books.google.com/books?id=noCrAgAAQBAJ&q=%22louise+gluck%22+columbia+1963&pg=PA252
  85. https://www.pulitzer.org/prize-winners-by-year/1993
  86. Proofs & Theories: Essays on Poetry
  87. https://web.archive.org/web/20080820011218/http://www.esuus.org/books_across_sea_ambassador_books_awards_past_winners_1986_2002.htm
  88. https://web.archive.org/web/20080820011813/http://www.esuus.org/books_across_sea_2007.htm
  89. https://www.jfklibrary.org/about-us/news-and-press/press-releases/pen-new-england-and-the-jfk-presidential-library-announce-winners-of-the-2007-hemingway-foundation-p
  90. https://www.jfklibrary.org/about-us/news-and-press/press-releases/pen-new-england-and-the-jfk-presidential-library-announce-winners-of-the-2007-hemingway-foundation-p
  91. https://www.nationalbook.org/awards-prizes/national-book-awards-2014/
  92. https://www.nationalbook.org/people/louise-gluck/
  93. https://www.pulitzer.org/finalists/louise-gluck
  94. http://www.griffinpoetryprize.com/awards-and-poets/shortlists/2010-shortlist/louise-gluck/

Havolalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]