Imperator Chjengde

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Imperator Chjengde
Ming Wuzong.jpg
Imperator Chjendening saroy portreti tasviri. Taypeydagi Milliy saroy muzeyida saqlanmoqda
Min sulolasining 11-imperatori
Hukmronlik yillari: 1505-yil 19-iyun - 1521-yil 20-april
Taxtga oʻtirgan sanasi: 1505-yil 19-iyun
Oʻtmishdoshi Imperator Hongchji
Davomchisi Imperator Jiajing
Turmush oʻrtogʻi Imperatritsa Xiaojingyi
Toʻliq nomi
Chju Houchjao
(朱厚㷖)
Era nomi va maʼlumotlar
Chjengde erasi (正德): 1506-yil 24-yanvar - 1522-yil 27-yanvar
Maʼbad ismi
Wuzong
(武宗)
Uy Chju xonadoni
Sulola Min sulolasi
Otasi Imperator Hongchji
Onasi Imperatritsa Xiaochengjing

Zhengde imperatori (xit. an’anaviy 正德帝, pinyin: Zhèngdé Dì; 1491-yil 26-oktabr – 1521-yil 20-aprel), Min sulolasining 11-imperatori, 1505-yildan 1521-yilgacha hukmronlik qilgan.

Unga tugʻilganida Chju Xouzjao ismi berilgan. Imperator Hongchjining toʻngʻich oʻgʻli edi. Chju Xouzxao 14 yoshida taxtga oʻtirdi, Chjende "toʻgʻri fazilat" yoki "fazilatni tuzatish" degan ma'noni anglatadi. U Liu Jin kabi amaldorlarga xayrixoh va bolalarcha xatti-harakatlari bilan mashhur boʻlgan. Oxir-oqibat u 29 yoshida mast holda Sariq daryoga qayiqdan tushib ketganidan keyin yuqtirgan kasallik tufayli vafot etdi. U oʻzidan voris qoldirmadi. Uning oʻrniga birinchi amakivachchasi Chju Xoukong taxtga chiqdi.

Yoshligi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Chju Xouzjao juda erta yoshda valiahd shahzoda etib tayinlangan va otasining boshqa kanizaklari yoʻqligi sababli, Chju taxt uchun boshqa shahzodalar bilan kurashishi shart boʻlmadi. (Uning ukasi goʻdakligida vafot etgan edi.) Shahzoda konfutsiy adabiyoti boʻyicha puxta bilim olgan. Imperator Honchjining koʻplab vazirlari Chju Xouzjao otasi kabi yorqin imperator boʻlishini kutishgan.

Imperator sifatida hukmronlik qilishi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Imperator Chjengde portreti

Chju Xouzjao imperator Chjende sifatida taxtga oʻtirdi va 14 yoshida oʻzining imperatritsasiga uylandi.[1] Otasidan farqli oʻlaroq, imperator Chjengde hukmronlik qilishdan manfaatdor emas edi va aksariyat davlat ishlariga mutlaqo e'tibor bermasdi. Uning xatti-harakatlari beparvolik, ahmoqlik yoki ma'nosiz deb hisoblanadi.[2] U mas'uliyatsizligini koʻrsatgan koʻplab holatlar mavjud.

Imperator Chjengde hashamatli turmush tarzi va ayollarga berilib ketdi. Aytishlaricha, u tez-tez fohishaxonalarga borishni yaxshi koʻrgan va hatto Pekindagi Yopiq shahar tashqarisida "Bao Fang" (soʻzma-soʻz "Leopardlar palatasi") saroylarini yaratib, oʻyin-kulgi uchun yoʻlbars va leopard kabi ekzotik hayvonlarni joylashtiradi. Keyinchalik oʻzining shaxsiy zavqi uchun goʻzal ayollarni u yerga joylashtirgan.[3] U shuningdek, Bao Fangda oʻzining sevimli turmush oʻrtoqlaridan biri boʻlgan Vang Mantang bilan uchrashgan. Bir marta u yoʻlbarslarni ovlayotganda qattiq jarohatlanib, bir oy davomida hukumat majlislarida koʻrinish bermagan.[2] Yana bir marta u chiroqlar bayrami paytida hovlilarda porox saqlagan holda saroyini yoqib yuborgan.[2] Uning harami shunchalik toʻlib ketgan ediki, koʻplab ayollari oziq-ovqat yetishmasligi tufayli ochlikdan oʻlishgan.[4]

Qufudagi Yan ibodatxonasining ta'mirlanishiga bagʻishlangan stella.1509-yil (Chjengde davrining 4-yili)

Bir necha oy davomida u Yopiq shahardan tashqarida yashar yoki Min hukumati gʻaznasidan katta xarajatlar qilib mamlakat boʻylab sayohat qilardi. Saroyga qaytgach, hukumat ishlari bilan shugʻullanish uchun chaqirilganda, imperator Cjhengde barcha vazirlarini qabul qilishdan bosh tortdi va ularning iltimoslarini e'tiborsiz qoldirdi. Shuningdek, u atrofida amaldorlarning koʻpayishiga imkon yaratib berdi. "Sakkiz yoʻlbars" yetakchisi Lyu Jin yosh imperatordan foydalanib, juda koʻp miqdordagi kumush va qimmatbaho narsalarni oʻzlashtirgani bilan mashhur edi. Oʻmarilgan mablagʻlar taxminan 36 million funt oltin va kumushni tashkil etgan.[5] Hatto Lyu Jin imperatorni oʻldirib, oʻz nevarasini taxtga oʻtqazmoqchi boʻlganligi haqida mish-mishlar ham tarqaldi. Liu Jinning fitnasi oxir-oqibat aniqlandi va u 1510-yilda qatl etildi. Biroq, amaldorlarning korrupsiya orqali koʻtarilishi imperator Chjengde davrida davom etdi. Bundan tashqari , Anhua shahzodasi boshchiligida va Ning shahzodasi boshchiligida qoʻzgʻolonlar ham sodir boʻldi. Anxua shahzodasi imperator Chengdening katta amakisi, Ning shahzodasi esa amakisi edi.[6]

Vaqt oʻtishi bilan imperator Chjengde bolalarcha xatti-harakati va imperator sifatida oʻz vakolatini suiiste'mol qilishi tufayli mashhur boʻldi. Jumladan, u oʻz saroyi ichida sahnalashtirilgan savdo hududini tashkil qilib, barcha vazirlari, amaldorlari, askarlari va saroy xizmatchilariga oʻzini oddiy odamdek koʻrsatib, bozorni aylanish yoki koʻcha sotuvchisi sifatida koʻrinishni buyurdi. Buni istamagan har qanday ishtirokchilar, ayniqsa vazirlar (buni qadr-qimmatni kamsituvchi va haqorat deb bilgan) jazolandi yoki lavozimidan chetlashtirildi.

1517-yilda imperator Chjengde oʻzining ismini Chju Shouga oʻzgartirib, imperatorlik burchlaridan voz kechdi va Dayan Xon boshchiligidagi bir necha oʻn ming kishilik bosqinchilik ekspeditsiyalarini qaytarish uchun oʻzini shimolga harbiy safarga joʻnatdi. U Inchjou shahri tashqarisida dushman kuchlari bilan uchrashdi va ularni oʻrab olib, katta jangda magʻlub etdi. Ushbu jangdan keyin uzoq vaqt davomida moʻgʻullar Min hududiga bosqinchilik yurishi uyushtirmadilar. 1519-yilda imperator Chjengde Ning shahzodasi isyonini bostirish uchun janubdagi Szyansi provinsiyasiga qarshi yana bir yurishni boshqargan. Isyonga imperator saroyidagi koʻplab amaldorlarga pora bergan Chju Chenxao nomli qudratli shahzoda boshchilik qildi. U yetib kelgach, qoʻzgʻolonni mahalliy ma'muriyat xodimi Van Yangming bostirganidan xabar topdi. Oʻz qoʻshinlarini gʻalaba sari boshlay olmaganidan hafsalasi pir boʻldi. Imperator Chjengdening maslahatchisi shahzodani qayta qoʻlga olish uchun qoʻyib yuborishni maslahat berdi. 1521-yilning yanvarida imperator Chjengde isyonchi shahzoda Ningni Tonchjouda qatl qildi.[7] Bu voqea Portugaliyaning Xitoydagi elchilik guruhi tomonidan ham qayd etilgan.

Chjengde hukmronligi davrida yasalgan Xitoyning islom bronza tutatqisi. Adilnor kolleksiyasi, Shvetsiya.

Musulmonlar bilan munosabatlar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Tahorat (tozalik) soʻzi yozilgan Xitoy tahorat havzasi. Chjengde davriga oid

Imperator Chjengde chet elliklarni hayratda qoldirib, koʻplab musulmonlarni oʻz saroyida maslahatchi, amaldor va elchi sifatida xizmat qilishga taklif qildi.[8] Uning saroyidagi chinni san'at asarlari arab yoki fors tillaridagi islomiy yozuvlar bilan bezalgan.[9][10][11][12]

Oʻrta osiyolik savdogar Ali Akbar Xatoiy tomonidan yozilgan “Xataynoma” nomli sayohatnomada Pekinda katta masjid boʻlgani, imperator uni ziyorat qilib namoz oʻqiganligi qayd etilgan.[13]

Imperator Chjengde oq va koʻk rangdagi fors va arab yozuvlari boʻlgan chinni buyumlar ishlab chiqarishni boshlagan musulmon amaldorlar xizmatidan foydalangani va Choʻchqalarni soʻyish toʻgʻrisidagi farmon imperator islomni qabul qilgan degan taxminlarga sabab boʻlgan.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] Choʻchqa soʻyishga qarshi farmon ortida kim turgani noma'lum.[23]

Imperator Chjengde chet ellik musulmon ayollarni afzal koʻrgan, ular bilan koʻp aloqada boʻlgan.[24][25]

Bret Xinshning "Kesilgan yengning ehtiroslari: Xitoyda erkak gomoseksual an'anasi" kitobida yozilishicha, imperator Chjengde Min-Turpan chegara urushlari davrida Hamida nazoratchi boʻlib ishlagan Sayyid Husayn ismli Hami shahridan boʻlgan musulmon yetakchisi bilan gomoseksual munosabatda boʻlgan. Xitoy manbalarida bu da'voni tasdiqlovchi dalil mavjud emas.[26][27][28]

Qorongʻu azob[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

1521-yil boshida imperator Chjengdening vafotidan oldin, "Qorongʻu azoblar" deb nomlangan sirli mavjudotlar guruhi haqida mish-mishlar tarqaldi. Ularning hujumlari juda koʻp tartibsizliklarni keltirib chiqardi. Ular tunda odamlarga tasodifan hujum qilib, tirnoqlari bilan yaralar qilishardi. Urush vaziri imperatordan mahalliy xavfsizlik qoʻshinlari odamlarni qoʻrqitayotgan guruhni hibsga olishni e'lon qiladigan imperator farmonini yozishni soʻradi. Qamoq tahdidi mish-mishlarning tarqalishini darhol toʻxtatdi.[29]

Yevropa bilan aloqa[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Portugaliya Malakkasidan Xitoyga birinchi toʻgʻridan-toʻgʻri Yevropa dengiz korxonalarini topshirgan Afonso de Albuquerque.

Yevropaning Xitoy bilan birinchi toʻgʻridan-toʻgʻri aloqalari imperator Chjengde davrida sodir boʻlgan. Portugaliya Malakkasidan Afonso de Albuquerque tomonidan amalga oshirilgan bir nechta missiyalarda portugal tadqiqotchilari Xorxe Alvares va Rafael Perestrello janubiy Xitoyga borib, Tuen Mun va Guanchjoudagi Xitoy savdogarlari bilan savdo qilishdi. 1513-yilda Portugaliya qiroli Manuel I Fernao Pires de Andrade va Tome Piresni Pekindagi bosh hukumat va Portugaliya oʻrtasida rasmiy munosabatlar oʻrnatish uchun yubordi. 1520-yilning may oyida imperator Chjengde Nankinga sayohati chogʻida Portugaliya elchisini duo qilgan boʻlsa-da, u koʻp oʻtmay vafot etdi va portugaliyaliklar (kantonda oʻgʻrilab ketilgan xitoylik bolalar haqida mish-mishlar tarqaldi) Xitoy hukumati tomonidan yangi qaror asosida haydab yuborildi. Bu ishlarga yangi bosh kotib Yang Tinghe boshchilik qildi. Keyinchalik noqonuniy savdo davom etgan boʻlsa-da, Portugaliya va Min hukumati oʻrtasidagi rasmiy munosabatlar 1540-yillarga qadar yaxshilanmadi. Sovuq munosabatlar Min hukumati 1557-yilda Portugaliyaning Xitoyda savdo bazasi Aominni tashkil etishiga roziligi bilan yakunlandi.

Portugaliyaga qarshi Xitoy-Malay ittifoqi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Malayziya Malakka sultonligining vassal davlati va Min Xitoyining ittifoqchisi edi. 1511-yilda Portugaliya Malakkani bosib olib, Malay sultonligiga nisbatan vahshiylik qilganida, Xitoy Portugaliyaga kuch ishlatish bilan javob qaytardi.

Min hukumati Guanchjouda bir nechta portugal elchilarini qiynoqqa solib, qamoqqa tashladi va keyinroq qatl qildi. Malakkaliklar xitoyliklarga Portugaliya Malakkani egallab olgani haqida xabar berishdi. Bunga xitoyliklar portugallarga nisbatan dushmanlik bilan javob berishdi. Malakkaliklar xitoyliklarga portugallarning hiyla-nayranglari, jumladan hududni zabt etish rejalarini oddiy savdo faoliyati ortida yashirishlari va portugallar tomonidan sodir etilgan barcha vahshiyliklar haqida gapirib berishdi.[30]

Malakka sultoni Portugaliya bosqiniga qarshi imperator Chjengdega shikoyat qilganligi sababli, portugallar Xitoyga kelganlarida xitoylar tomonidan dushmanlik bilan kutib olindi.[31][32][33][34][35] Malakkadan qochib, Bintanda joylashgan Malakka sultoni xitoylarga xabar yubordi. Bu xabar Xitoydagi portugallarga nisbatan zoʻravonlik faoliyati bilan birgalikda 23 portugallikni qatl qilish, qolganlarini esa qamoqxonalarda qiynoqqa solishga sabab boʻldi. Portugaliyaliklar Xitoyda savdo qilish uchun nazorat postlari oʻrnatib, Xitoyda qaroqchilik faoliyati bilan shugʻullana boshlaganlariga xitoyliklar Ningbo va Quanchjouda portugallarni butunlay yoʻq qilish bilan javob qaytardilar.[36] Portugaliyaning savdo elchisi Pires ham Xitoy zindonlarida oʻlganlar qatorida edi.[37][38][39]

1521-yilda Tunmen jangida xitoyliklar portugal flotini magʻlubiyatga uchratib, koʻplab portugallarni oʻldirishdi va asirga olishdi. Portugallar faqat uchta kema bilan chekinishga majbur boʻlib, Malakkaga qochib ketishdi. Xitoy yakuniy hujum boshlaganda shamol Xitoy kemalarini tarqatib yubordi.[40]

Xitoyliklar Portugaliya elchisini garovda ushlab turib, portugaliyaliklardan taxtdan agʻdarilgan Malakka sultonini (qirol) oʻz taxtiga qaytarishni talab qilishda elchilardan savdolashish vositasi sifatida foydalanishdi.[41]

Xitoyliklar bir nechta portugaliyaliklarni kaltaklash va boʻgʻish, qolganlarini qiynoqqa solish orqali qatl qilishbni boshladilar. Ba'zi portugal mahbuslari temir zanjirlarga bogʻlangan holda qamoqxonada saqlanardi.[42] Xitoyliklar Portugallarning barcha mol-mulki va Pires elchiligining ham mol-mulkini musodara qildilar.[43]

1522-yilda Martim Afonso de Merlo Koutino diplomatik munosabatlar oʻrnatish uchun yuborilgan portugal flotining qoʻmondoni etib tayinlandi.[44] Xitoyliklar Shancaowan jangida Koutinyo boshchiligidagi Portugaliya kemalarini magʻlub etishdi. Jang paytida koʻplab portugallar asir olindi va kemalar yoʻq qilindi. Portugallar Malakkaga chekinishga majbur boʻlishdi.[45][46]

Xitoyliklar Portugaliyaliklardan taxtdan agʻdarilgan Malakka sultonini taxtga qaytarishni talab qilib, Piresni vatandoshlariga xat yozishga majbur qildilar. Malayziyaning Xitoydagi vakili maktubni yetkazishi kerak edi.[47]

Xitoyliklar Malakkaning taxtdan tushirilgan sultoniga asirga olingan Portugaliya elchisining taqdiri haqida xabar yubordilar. Sultonning javobini olgach, xitoylik amaldorlar Portugaliya elchisini qatl qilishga kirishdilar. Ularning jasadlarini bir necha boʻlaklarga boʻlishdi. Jinsiy a'zolari ogʻizlariga solishdi. Portugaliya xitoylar nazarida ahamiyatsiz ekanligini koʻrsatish uchun bir qancha portugallar Guanchjouning koʻplab hududlarida omma oldida qatl etildi.[48] Xitoyga kelgan portugal kemalari xitoylar tomonidan qoʻlga olinib, xitoyliklar ularni ham qatl qildilar, jinsiy a'zolarni kesishdi, jasadlarning boshlarini kesib, boshqa asirlarni ularning terisini kiyishga majbur qilishdi. Bu holatlarni xitoyliklar musiqa bilan nishonlashdi. Jinsiy a'zolar va boshlar omma oldida uchun oʻralgan holda koʻrsatildi, shundan soʻng ular tashlab yuborildi.[49]

Oʻlimi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Kangling. Imperator Chjengdening qabri. 2020-yil yanvar oyining boshi

Imperator Chjengde 1521-yilda 29 yoshida vafot etdi. Uning yoshi oʻsha paytdagi qadimgi Xitoy tizimiga koʻra 31 yoshda edi. Aytishlaricha, u 1520-yilning kuzida koʻlda qayiqda sayr qilayotganda mast boʻlgan. U qayiqdan yiqilib, choʻkib ketishiga sal qolgan.[50] U Buyuk Kanal suvlaridan kasallikka chalinganidan keyin vafot etdi.[5] Uning farzandlaridan hech biri bolaligidan omon qolmaganligi sababli, oʻrnini amakivachchasi Chju Xoukong egalladi. U imperator Jiajing sifatida taxtga oʻtirdi. Uning qabri Kangling shahridagi Min qabrlarida joylashgan.

Merosi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Fogong ibodatxonasi pagodasida imperator Chengdening "Dunyo moʻjizasi" xattotlik lavhasi

Ba'zi tarixchilarning hisoblariga koʻra, imperator Chjengde muvaffaqiyatli hukmdor boʻlish uchun tarbiyalangan boʻlsa-da, oʻz vazifalarini butunlay e'tiborsiz qoldirib, keyingi Min imperatorlarini bezovta qiladigan xavfli tendensiyani boshladi. Shaxsiy qoniqishi uchun rasmiy vazifalardan voz kechish asta-sekin Min sulolasida kuchli siyosiy nufuzga ega va oxir-oqibatda sulolani barbod qiladigan amaldorlarning shakllanishiga olib keladi. Min olimi Tan Tsyan shunday degan: "Imperator aqlli va oʻynoqi edi... Shuningdek, unga qarshi bahs yuritgan amaldorlarga ham ozor bermagan. Vazirning qoʻllab-quvvatlashidan va kotiblarning samarali ishlaridan bahramand boʻldi. Lyu Jin va Tsyan Ning (Chjendening asrab olingan oʻgʻli) kabi jinoyatchilarni jazolaydigan farmonlar chiqarish uchun yarim tungacha ishladi.

Ba'zi zamonaviy tarixchilar  uning hukmronligini yangi nuqtai nazardan koʻrib chiqishdi. Uning va imperator Vanli kabi vorislarining xatti-harakatlari Min sulolasining keyingi davriga ta'sir koʻrsatgan byurokratik toʻsiqlarga bevosita reaksiya ekanligi haqida munozalar olib bordilar. Imperatorlar oʻzlarining siyosiy qarorlarida juda cheklangan edilar va aniq zaruratga qaramay, hech qanday samarali islohotlarni amalga oshira olmadilar. Ular doimiy bosimga duchor boʻlishdi va sulola duch kelgan barcha muammolar uchun javobgar boʻlishlari kutildi. Natijada, vazirlar oʻz lavozimlaridan hafsalasi pir boʻlib, umidsizlikka tushib qolishdi. Asosan imperatorga zarba boʻladigan turli shakllarda norozilik bildirishdi. Shunday qilib, imperator Chjengde kabi imperatorlar saroydan yashirincha chiqib ketishdi, Jiajing va Vanli kabi imperatorlar esa imperator saroyida koʻrinish ham berishmasdi, deb hisoblashadi. Boshqa mualliflar[51] esa Chjengde kuchli irodaga ega hukmdor boʻlgan, Liu Jin, shahzoda Ning, shahzoda Anxua va moʻgʻullar tahdidiga qatʼiy munosabatda boʻlgan, tabiiy ofatlar va vabolar sabab boʻlgan inqirozlarda malakali harakat qilgan va aholiga xayrixohlik bilan soliq yigʻganligini taʼkidlaydilar. Uning hukmronlik davridagi yutuqlarda koʻp jihatdan iste'dodli amaldorlarning hissasi boʻlsa-da, ular hukmdor shaxsiy qobiliyatini ham aks ettirgan.

Shajarasi[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imperator Xuande (1399–1435)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imperator Yingzong (1427–1464)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imperatritsa Xiaogongzhang (1399–1462)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imperator Chenghua (1447–1487)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chjou Neng
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imperatritsa Xiaosu (1430–1504)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chjen xonim
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imperator Hongchji (1470–1505)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imperatritsa Xiaomu (1451–1475)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imperator Chjengde (1491–1521)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chjang Di
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chjang Shou
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chjang Luan (vaf. 1492)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imperatritsa Xiaochengjing (1471—1541)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jin xonim
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Madaniyatda oʻrni[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  • 1959-yilda suratga olingan “Qirollik va goʻzallik” (“ Qirollik va goʻzallik” filmida imperator Chjengde (Chjao Ley (aktyor) tomonidan tasvirlangan) oʻzini xalq orasida oddiy odam sifatida koʻrsatgan.[52]
  • "Sevgi qirralari" yoki "Xitoyning shimoliy xonimlari" nomli, 1973-yilda rejissor Li Xan-hsiang tomonidan suratga olingan filmda turli davrlarda fohishaxona mavzusidagi uchta hikoya berilgan. Ulardan birida imperator Chjengde haqida hikoya qilinadi.
  • Gonkongdagi "Xitoy Odisseyi 2002" filmi imperator Chjengdening Chjejiang provinsiyasiga sayohatlaridan birining hikoyasiga asoslangan boʻlib, unda Chjende Chang Chen tomonidan tasvirlangan.
  • 2005-yilgi Zhengde Commentary telekoʻrsatuvida imperator Chjengde telekoʻrsatuv boshlovchisi Xe Jiong tomonidan tasvirlangan.
  • Imperator Chjengde Niki Lou tomonidan 2009-yilda TVB telekanalining xuddi shu nomdagi anʼanaviy Pingtan operasi asosidagi “Yovga kelin” dramasida tasvirlangan.

Manbalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  1. Timothy Brook. The Troubled Empire: China in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. Harvard University Press, 2010 — 98 bet. ISBN 978-0-674-04602-3. 
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 Chase, Kenneth Warren. [2003] (2003). Firearms: A Global History to 1700. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82274-2. p 159.
  3. 毛奇齡. 明武宗外紀
  4. Ellen Widmer. Writing women in late imperial China. Stanford University Press, 1997 — 239 bet. ISBN 978-0-8047-2872-0. 
  5. 5,0 5,1 Wintle, Justin. Guides, Rough. [2002] (2002). China. ISBN 1-85828-764-2ISBN 1-85828-764-2. p 244-245.
  6. 謝蕡. 後鑒錄
  7. 刑部問寧王案
  8. Julia Ching. Chinese religions. Macmillan, 1993. ISBN 978-0-333-53174-7. 
  9. http://news.cang.com/infos/201007/109498.html
  10. „博宝艺术家网-艺术家一站式服务平台!艺术家官网+艺术展览+艺术电子画册“.
  11. „Archived copy“. taoci.chnart.com. 22-fevral 2015-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 17-yanvar 2022-yil.
  12. „Archived copy“. 22-fevral 2015-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 22-fevral 2015-yil.
  13. Chen, Yuan Julian (2021-10-11). „Between the Islamic and Chinese Universal Empires: The Ottoman Empire, Ming Dynasty, and Global Age of Explorations“. Journal of Early Modern History. 25-jild, № 5. 422–456-bet. doi:10.1163/15700658-bja10030. ISSN 1385-3783.
  14. Jay A. Levenson. Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. Yale University Press, 1991 — 477 bet. ISBN 978-0-300-05167-4. 
  15. Bernard O'Kane. The Civilization of the Islamic World. The Rosen Publishing Group, 15-dekabr 2012-yil — 207 bet. ISBN 978-1-4488-8509-1. 
  16. http://www.bonhams.com/auctions/20024/lot/37/ Bonhams Auctioneers : A rare blue and white screen Zhengde six-character mark and of the period
  17. Oriental Blue and White, London, 1970, p.29.
  18. „Archived copy“. www.fa.hku.hk. 21-mart 2012-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 12-yanvar 2022-yil.
  19. Britannica Educational Publishing. The Culture of China. Britannica Educational Publishing, 2010 — 176– bet. ISBN 978-1-61530-183-6. 
  20. Kathleen Kuiper. The Culture of China. The Rosen Publishing Group, 2010 — 176 bet. ISBN 978-1-61530-140-9. 
  21. Britannica Educational Publishing. The Culture of China. Britannica Educational Publishing, 1-aprel 2010-yil — 176 bet. ISBN 978-1-61530-183-6. 
  22. Suzanne G. Valenstein. A Handbook of Chinese Ceramics. Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988 — 187– bet. ISBN 978-0-8109-1170-3. 
  23. B. J. ter Haar. Telling Stories: Witchcraft And Scapegoating in Chinese History. BRILL, 2006 — 4 bet. ISBN 978-90-04-14844-4. 
  24. John W. Dardess. Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield, 2012 — 47– bet. ISBN 978-1-4422-0491-1. 
  25. Frederick W. Mote. Imperial China 900-1800. Harvard University Press, 2003 — 657 bet. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7. 
  26. Bret Hinsch. Passions of the cut sleeve: the male homosexual tradition in China. University of California Press, 1992 — 142 bet. ISBN 978-0-520-07869-7. 
  27. Société française des seiziémistes. Nouvelle revue du XVIe siècle. Droz, 1997 — 14 bet. 
  28. „History of Homosexuality“. china.org.cn. 19-noyabr 2003-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 26-noyabr 2016-yil.
  29. B. J. ter Haar. Translated by Zakeri, Mohsen. [2005] (2005). Telling Stories: Witchcraft And Scapegoating in Chinese History. ISBN 90-04-13160-4.
  30. Nigel Cameron. Barbarians and mandarins: thirteen centuries of Western travelers in China. University of Chicago Press, 1976 — 143 bet. ISBN 978-0-226-09229-4. „envoy, had most effectively poured out his tale of woe, of deprivation at the hands of the Portuguese in Malacca; and he had backed up the tale with others concerning the reprehensible Portuguese methods in the Moluccas, making the case (quite truthfully) that European trading visits were no more than the prelude to annexation of territory. With the tiny sea power at this time available to the Chinese“ 
  31. Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia Ahmad Ibrahim: . Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1985 — 11 bet. ISBN 978-9971-988-08-1. „in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain.“ 
  32. Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands). Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde, Part 124. M. Nijhoff, 1968 — 446 bet. „The reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain.“ 
  33. Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde, 1968 — 446 bet. „The reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain.“ 
  34. Alijah Gordon, Malaysian Sociological Research Institute. The propagation of Islam in the Indonesian-Malay archipelago. Malaysian Sociological Research Institute, 2001 — 136 bet. ISBN 978-983-99866-2-4. „His reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Melaka, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain.“ 
  35. Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indië, Hague. Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië. M. Nijhoff, 1968 — 446 bet. „The reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain.“ 
  36. Ernest S. Dodge. Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. U of Minnesota Press, 1976 — 226 bet. ISBN 978-0-8166-0853-9. „The inexcusable behavior of the Portuguese, combined with the ill-chosen language of the letters which Pires presented to the celestial emperor, supplemented by a warning from the Malay sultan of Bintan, persuaded the Chinese that Pires was indeed up to no good“ 
  37. Kenneth Scott Latourette. The Chinese, their history and culture, 4, reprint, Macmillan, 1964 — 235 bet. „The Moslem ruler of Malacca, whom they had dispossessed, complained of them to the Chinese authorities. A Portuguese envoy, Pires, who reached Peking in 1520 was treated as a spy, was conveyed by imperial order to Canton“ (the University of Michigan)
  38. Kenneth Scott Latourette. The Chinese, their history and culture, 2, Macmillan, 1942 — 313 bet. „The Moslem ruler of Malacca, whom they had dispossessed, complained of them to the Chinese authorities. A Portuguese envoy, Pires, who reached Peking in 1520 was treated as a spy, was conveyed by imperial order to Canton“ 
  39. John William Parry. Spices: The story of spices. The spices described. Chemical Pub. Co., 1969 — 102 bet. „Fernao Pires de Andrade reached Peking, China, in 1520, but unfortunately for that Portuguese envoy, he was treated as a spy and died in a Cantonese prison.“ 
  40. Tomé Pires. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512–1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack..., illustrated, reprint Armando Cortesão: , Asian Educational Services, 1990 — xl bet. ISBN 978-81-206-0535-0. 14-dekabr 2011-yilda qaraldi. „In the meantime, after the departure of Simão de Andrade, the ship Madalena, which belonged to D. Nuno Manuel, coming from Lisbon under the command of Diogo Calvo, arrived at Tamão with some other vessels from Malacca, among them the junk of Jorge Álvares, which the year before could not sail with Simão de Andrade's fleet, because she had sprung a leak..., the Chinese seized Vasco Calvo, a brother of Diogo Calvo, and other Portuguese who were in Canton trading ashore. On 27 June 1521 Duarte Coelho arrived with two junks at Tamão. Besides capturing some of the Portuguese vessels, the Chinese blockaded Diogo Calvo's ship and four other Portuguese vessels in Tamão with a large fleet of armed junks. A few weeks later Ambrósio do Rego arrived with two other ships. As many of the Portuguese crews had been killed in the fighting, slaughtered afterwards or taken prisoners, by this time there was not enough Portuguese for all the vessels, and thus Calvo, Coelho, and Rego resolved to abandon the junks in order the batteter to man the three ships. They set sail on 7 September and were attacked by the Chinese fleet, managing however to escape, thanks to a providential gale which scattered the enemy junks, and arrived at Malacca in October 1521. Vieira mentions other junks which arrived in China with Portuguese aboard; all were attacked, and the entire crews were killed fighting or were taken prisoners and slaughtered later.“ 
  41. Tomé Pires. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512–1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack..., illustrated Armando Cortesão: , Asian Educational Services, 1990 — xl bet. ISBN 978-81-206-0535-0. 14-dekabr 2011-yilda qaraldi. „Finally Pires and his companions left Peking on 22 May and arrived in Canton on 22 September 1521. Francisco de Budoia died during the journey. From Peking instructions were sent to Canton that the ambassador and his suite should be kept in custody, and that only after the Portuguese had evacuated Malacca and returned it to its king, a vassal of the Emperor of China, would the members of the embassy be liberated.“ 
  42. Tomé Pires. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512–1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack..., illustrated Armando Cortesão: , Asian Educational Services, 1990 — xli bet. ISBN 978-81-206-0535-0. 14-dekabr 2011-yilda qaraldi. „But many others died in prison, some of hunger, many strangled, 'after carrying boards stating that they should die as sea-robbers', one struck on the head with a mallet, and others beaten to death. Pires and his companions arrived at Canton a fortnight after the three Portuguese ships had escaped from Tamão, and they found themselves in a most difficult position... "Tomé Pires replied that he had not come for that purpose, nor was it meet for him to discuss such a matter; that it would be evident from the letter he had brought that he had no knowledge of anything else.... With these questions he kept us on our knees for four hours; and when he had tired himself out, he sent each one back to the prison in which he was kept. On 14 August 1522 the Pochanci put fetters on the hands of Tomé Pires, and on those of the company he put fetters, and irons on their feet“ 
  43. Tomé Pires. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512–1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack..., illustrated Armando Cortesão: , Asian Educational Services, 1990 — xlii bet. ISBN 978-81-206-0535-0. 14-dekabr 2011-yilda qaraldi. „clerks who were present wrote down ten and stole three hundred... The goods that they took from us were twenty quintals of rhubarb, one thousand five hundred or six hundred rich pieces of silk, a matter of four thousand silk handkerchiefs which the Chinese call sheu-pa (xopas) of Nanking, and many fans, and also three arrobas of musk in powerder, one thousand three hundred pods of musk, four thousand odd taels of silver and seventy or eighty taels of gold and other pieces of silver, and all the cloths“ 
  44. Tomé Pires. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512–1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack..., illustrated Armando Cortesão: , Asian Educational Services, 1990 — xlii bet. ISBN 978-81-206-0535-0. 14-dekabr 2011-yilda qaraldi. „Meanwhile from India, where the news of this state of affairs had not yet arrived, another fleet of four ships under the command of Martim Afonso de Merlo Coutinho sailed for China in April 1522. Countinho had left Lisbon just one year before, commissioned by Dom Manuel with a message of good-will to the Emperor of China, for which purpose he carried another ambassador with him.“ 
  45. Tomé Pires. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512–1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack..., illustrated Armando Cortesão: , Asian Educational Services, 1990 — xliii bet. ISBN 978-81-206-0535-0. 14-dekabr 2011-yilda qaraldi. „Coutinho's fleet of six sail left Malacca on 10 July and arrived at Tamão in August 1522. They were soon attacked by the Chinese fleet. The Portuguese had many men killed and taken prisoners, two ships and the junk were lost, and after vain efforts to re-establish relations with the Cantonese authorities, Coutinho returned with the other ships to Malacca, where he arrived in the middle of October 1522. Though some chroniclers put the blame on the Chinese, Chang quotes Chinese sources which assert that the Portuguese should be held responsible for the outbreak of hostilities.“ 
  46. Tomé Pires. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512–1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack..., illustrated Armando Cortesão: , Asian Educational Services, 1990 — xlvi bet. ISBN 978-81-206-0535-0. 14-dekabr 2011-yilda qaraldi. „On fol. 108v. it is stated that Martim Afonso de Melo Coutinho went from Malacca to China in 1521, but in fol. 121 it is correctly said that he arrived in 1522.“ 
  47. Tomé Pires. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512–1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack..., illustrated Armando Cortesão: , Asian Educational Services, 1990 — xliii bet. ISBN 978-81-206-0535-0. 14-dekabr 2011-yilda qaraldi. „According to Vieira the mandarins again ordered that Pires should write a letter to the King of Portugal, which the ambassador of the ex-king of Malacca should take to Malacca, in order that his country and people might be returned to their former master; if a satisfactory reply did not come, the Portuguese ambassador would not return. A draft letter in Chinese was sent to the imprisoned Portuguese, from which they wrote three letters, for King Manuel, the Governor of India and the Captain of Malacca. These letters were delivered to the Cantonese authorities on 1 October 1522. The Malay ambassador was not anxious to be the courier, nor was it easy to find another. At last a junk with fifteen Malays and fifteen Chinese sailed from Canton on 31 May 1523 and reached Pattani.“ 
  48. Tomé Pires. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512–1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack..., illustrated Armando Cortesão: , Asian Educational Services, 1990 — xliv bet. ISBN 978-81-206-0535-0. 14-dekabr 2011-yilda qaraldi. „A message came to the king of Bintang from his ambassador [in Canton], and the man who brought it soon returned. The report which the king of Bintang was spreading in the country is that the Chinese intended to come against Malacca. This is not very certain, though there are things that may happen The man who brought a message to the king of Bintang 'soon returned', says Jorge de Albuquerque. Vieira tells us that the junk 'returned with a message from the king of Malacca, and reached Canton on 5 September' (fol.110V.)... 'On the day of St. Nicholas [6 Dec.] in the year 1522 they put boards on them [the Portuguese prisoners] with the sentence that they should die and be exposed in pillories as robbers. The sentences said: "Petty sea robbers sent by the great robber falsely; they come to spy out our country; let them die in pillories as robbers." a report was sent to the king according to the information of the mandarins, and the king confirmed the sentence. On 23 September 1523 these twenty-three persons were each one cut in pieces, to wit, heads, legs, arms, and their private members placed in their mouths, the trunk of the body being divided into two pieces around the belly. In the streets of Canton“ 
  49. Tomé Pires. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512–1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack..., illustrated Armando Cortesão: , Asian Educational Services, 1990 — xlv bet. ISBN 978-81-206-0535-0. 14-dekabr 2011-yilda qaraldi. „both those of Canton and those of the environs, in order to give them to understand that they thought nothing of the Portuguese, so that the people might not talk about Portuguese. Thus our ships were captured through two captains not agreeing, and so all in the ships were taken, they were all killed, and their heads and private members were carried on the backs of the Portuguese in front of the Mandarin of Canton with the playing of musical instruments and rejoicing, were exhibited suspended in the streets, and were then thrown into the dunghills.“ 
  50. Imperial China – 900–1800, F.W. Mote, Pages 658, First Harvard University Press, 2003.
  51. 周. „「明史」課程大綱 – 第七講 議禮、修玄與威刑-嘉靖政局的演變“ (zh).
  52. NYtimes. "NYtimes." The Kingdom and the Beauty (1959). Retrieved on 30 April 2008.