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Om al-fil (arabcha: عام الفيل ʿạm , Fil yili) islom tarixida taxminan milodiy 570-571-yillarga to'g'ri keladigan yil nomi. Islom manbalariga ko'ra, Muhammad(s.a.v) aynan shu yili tug'ilgan.[1]Bu nom Makkada sodir bo'lgan voqeadan olingan: Habash, Aksumning nasroniy hukmdori Abraha Makkadagi Ka'baga katta qo'shin bilan yurish qildi, ular orasida jangovar fillar ham bor va uni buzish niyatida edi. Biroq, "Mahmud" nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan fil (arabcha: مَـحْـمُـوْد , undosh harflar: m-ħ-mwd),[2] Makka atrofidagi chegarada toʻxtab, kirishdan bosh tortgani aytiladi. Makkaning bunday muvaffaqiyatsiz bosqiniga chechak yoki Yustinian vabosi sabab bo'lgan epidemiya sabab bo'lishi mumkin, degan nazariya mavjud.[3] Yil Fil yili deb nomlana boshladi, bu yil Arabiston yarim orolida yillarni hisoblash odatini boshladi. Bu hisob Umar (r.a.) davrida islom taqvimi bilan almashtirilgunga qadar ishlatilgan.

Janubiy Arabistondagi arxeologik topilmalar shuni ko'rsatadiki, Fil yili 569 yoki 568-yil bo'lgan bo'lishi mumkin, chunki Sosoniylar imperiyasi Yamanda 570-yillarda Aksumitlarga qarashli hukmdorlarni ag'darib tashlagan edi.[4][5] 

Voqealar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Ibn Ishoq kabi ilk islom tarixchilariga ko'ra, Najoshiy Abraha o'zining ittifoqchisi sharafiga Sanada al- Qullays deb nomlanuvchi buyuk cherkov qurdirgan.

Al-Qulays keng miqyosda shuhrat qozondi, hatto Vizantiya imperiyasining e'tiborini qozondi.[1] O'sha davrdagi arab xalqining Makkada, Ka'bada o'z diniy ibodat va ziyorat markazi bo'lgan.[1] Abraha ularning hajlarini Qulaysga yoʻnaltirmoqchi boʻldi va Muhammad ibn Xuzoy ismli kishini tayinladi. [1]

Gʻazablangan Abraha Mahmud ismli oq fil[6] boshchiligida oltmish ming kishidan iborat qo'shin Makkadagi Ka'bani vayron qilish uchun qarshi yurish boshladi (va ehtimol boshqa fillar bilan birga – ba’zi ma’lumotlarga koʻra, bir nechta fillar, hattoki sakkiztagacha fil boʻlgan.[1][4]. Yoʻlda bir qancha arab qabilalari u bilan jang qilmoqchi boʻldilar, ammo magʻlubiyatga uchradilar.

Abraha qoʻshinining oldinga siljishi xabari kelganda Qurayshning arab qabilalari, Banu Kinana, Banu Xuza va Banu Huzayl Ka’bani himoya qilish uchun birlashdilar. Abraha faqat Ka'bani buzib tashlashni xohlaydi, agar qarshilik qilsalar, eziladilar, deb nasihat qilish uchun Himyar podshohligidan bir kishi yuborilgan. Abdulmuttalib makkaliklarga tepaliklardan panoh topishlarini buyurdi, u esa Qurayshning bir necha yetakchilari bilan Ka'ba atrofiada qolib ketdi. Abraha xabar yuborib, Abdulmuttalibni Abraha bilan uchrashib, masalalarni muhokama qilishga taklif qildi. Abdulmuttalib uchrashuvdan chiqib ketgach, uning: "Bu Baytning egasi uning Himoyachisidir va ishonchim komilki, U uni dushmanlar hujumidan qutqaradi va o'z uyining bandalarini sharmanda qilmaydi", degani eshitildi.

Qur'ondagi qissaga ishora juda qisqa. “ Al-Filsurasida , ertasi kuni [ Abroha shaharga kirishga hozirlanayotganda] “ Abil ” (arabcha: أَبـابـيـل) paydo bo'ldi. Qushlar tumshug'ida mayda toshlarni ko'tarib, Efiopiya qo'shinlarini yo'q qilishdi va ularni "yegan somon" kabi sindirishdi. Ammo Muhammad Asadning soʻzlariga koʻra, bu surada tom maʼnoda mayda toshlarni koʻtarib yuruvchi qushlar tasvirlanmagan, balki u Az-Zamaxshariy va Faxriddin ar-Roziyga ishora qilib, yuqoridagi oyatlarni shunday tarjima qilgan:

(2) Shunday qilib, U zot ularning ustiga katta to'da uchuvchi jonzotlarni yubordi (3) ular ularni oldindan belgilab qo'yilgan toshdek qattiq azoblar bilan urdi[7]

Muhammad Asadning fikricha, bu oyatda qoʻllangan soʻzlar, yaʼni “sijjil toshlari” “yozuv va tropik jihatdan [Xudo tomonidan] belgilab qoʻyilgan narsani” bildiradi.[8] Yana u Alloh taoloning bu farmoni juda toʻsatdan paydo boʻlgan epidemiya boʻlib, Ibn Ishoqning fikricha, isitma va chechak sabab boʻlganini tushuntiradi. Bu, Asadning xulosasiga ko'ra, "hasbah" isitma so'zi birinchi navbatda "tosh otish [yoki urish]" degan ma'noni anglatishi sababli "oldindan belgilab qo'yilgan tosh qattiq jazo" juda to'satdan xavfli epidemiya bo'lganiga ishora qiladi. Fayruzobodiyning mashhur arab lug'ati al-Qamous (ạlqạmus)da[9][10] Ta’ir soʻzi har qanday “uchar jonzot, xoh qush, xoh hasharot (Toj al-’Arus)”ni anglatishi mumkin.[11]

Boshqa manbalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Bu voqea Qur’oni karimning “ Al-Filsurasi, 105- oyat (arabcha: الـفِـيـل , "Fil") va unga tegishli tafsirda muhokama qilinadi.

Ba'zi olimlar fil yilini milodiy 570-yildan bir yoki ikki o'n yil oldin[12] deb belgilashgan, bu an'anaga ko'ra Ibn Shihob az-Zuhriy Abdurrazzoq as-San'oniy asarlarida tug'ilishdan oldin qo'yilgan.[13]

Shuningdek qarang[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

Manbalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 Hajjah Adil, Amina, "Prophet Muhammad", ISCA, Jun 1, 2002, ISBN 1-930409-11-7 Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Hajjah" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Hajjah" defined multiple times with different content
  2. ʿAbdu r-Rahmān ibn Nāsir as-Saʿdī. „Tafsir of Surah al Fil - The Elephant (Surah 105)“. Translated by Abū Rumaysah. Islamic Network. — „This elephant was called Mahmud and it was sent to Abrahah from Najashi, the king of Abyssinia, particularly for this expedition.“. 20-dekabr 2010-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 15-mart 2013-yil.
  3. Marr JS, Hubbard E, Cathey, JT (2015). „The Year of the Elephant“. WikiJournal of Medicine. 2-jild, № 1. doi:10.15347/wjm/2015.003. 2015-05-26da asl nusxadan arxivlandi.{{cite magazine}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ()

    In turn citing: Willan R.. Miscellaneous works: comprising An inquiry into the antiquity of the small-pox, measles, and scarlet fever, now first published; Reports on the diseases in London, a new ed.; and detached papers on medical subjects, collected from various periodical publi. Cadell, 1821 — 488 bet. 
  4. 4,0 4,1 William Montgomery Watt (1961). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 7.
  5. „Buried Christian Empire in Yemen Casts New Light on Early Islam“.
  6. Kistler, John M. ; foreword by Richard Lair „The Year of The Elephant“,. War elephants. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007 — 177 bet. ISBN 978-0803260047. „The lead elephant, named Mahmud, stopped and knelt down, refusing to go further.“ 
  7. The Message 8f The Quran, by Mohammad Asad, Surah 105:2-3. 
  8. Ibid M. Asad, Commentary on Surah 102, see note 2. „Lit., "with stones of sijjil". As explained in note [114] on 11:82, this latter term is synonymous with sijill, which signifies "a writing" and, tropically, "something that has been decreed [by God]": hence, the phrase hijarah min sijjil is a metaphor for "stone-hard blows of chastisement pre-ordained", i.e., in God's decree (Zamakhshari and Razi, with analogous comments on the same expression in 11:82).“ 
  9. Ibid. „As already mentioned in the introductory note, the particular chastisement to which the above verse alludes seems to have been a sudden epidemic of extreme virulence: according to Waqidi and Muhammad ibn Ishaq - the latter as quoted by Ibn Hisham and Ibn Kathir - "this was the first time that spotted fever (hasbah) and smallpox (judari) appeared in the land of the Arabs". It is interesting to note that the word hasbah - which, according to some authorities, signifies also typhus - primarily means "pelting [or smiting"] with stones" (Qamus)“ 
  10. Al-Qamus Al-Muhit by Muḥammad Ibn-Jaʻqūb al- Fīrūzābādī. 
  11. Ibid. „As regards the noun ta'ir (of which tayr is the plural), we ought to remember that it denotes any "flying creature", whether bird or insect (Taj al-'Arus). Neither the Qur'an nor any authentic Tradition offers us any evidence as to the nature of the "flying creatures" mentioned in the above verse; and since, on the other hand, all the "descriptions" indulged in by the commentators are purely imaginary, they need not be seriously considered. If the hypothesis of an epidemic is correct, the "flying creatures" - whether birds or insects - may well have been the carriers of the infection. One thing, however, is clear: whatever the nature of the doom that overtook the invading force, it was certainly miraculous in the true sense of this word - namely, in the sudden, totally unexpected rescue which it brought to the distressed people of Mecca.“ 
  12. Esposito, John L.. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World: Libe-Sare. Oxford University Press, 1995 — 154 bet. ISBN 978-0195096149. 
  13. ibn Rashid, Mamar. The Expeditions: An Early Biography of Muhammad. NYU Press, 16-may 2014-yil — 3–5 bet. ISBN 978-0814769638. 

Havolalar[tahrir | manbasini tahrirlash]