Avocado

Vikipediya, ochiq ensiklopediya
Navigatsiya qismiga oʻtish Qidirish qismiga oʻtish

Avakado ( Persea americana ) Amerika qit'asida paydo bo'lgan daraxt bo'lib, uning vatani Meksikaning janubiy-markaziy tog'li hududlarida, Gvatemalagacha . [1] [2] [3] Lauraceae gulli o'simliklar oilasiga mansub. [1] Avakado (avakado noki yoki alligator nok ) deb ham ataladigan o'simlikning mevasi botanik jihatdan bitta katta urug'ni o'z ichiga olgan yirik rezavor. [4] Avakado daraxtlari qisman o'z-o'zini changlatadi va ko'pincha meva sifati va miqdorini oldindan aytib berish uchun payvandlash orqali ko'paytiriladi . [5]

Avokadolar koʻplab tropik va Oʻrta er dengizi iqlimida yetishtiriladi, [1] Meksika 2019-yilda avakado yetishtirish boʻyicha yetakchi davlat sifatida dunyoning 32 foizini ushbu mahsulot bilan taʼminlaydi. [6] Avakado yetishtirish har bir avakado uchun 70 litre (18 US gal; 15 imp gal) suv [7] va 400 grammdan ortiq CO<sub>2</sub> emissiyasidan o'z ichiga olgan ekologik jihatdan intensiv mevalardan biridir. [8] Chili, Meksika va Kaliforniya kabi yirik ishlab chiqarish hududlarida avakadoga bo'lgan suv talabi umumiy suv resurslariga bosim o'tkazadi. [9] Avakado yetishtirish, shuningdek, atrof-muhit adolati va inson huquqlari, o'rmonlarni kesish va Meksika avokadolarining uyushgan jinoyatchilik bilan aloqasi kabi boshqa tashvishlar bilan bog'liq. [10] [11] [12] [13] Iqlim o'zgarishi avakado uchun mos o'sadigan zonalarda sezilarli o'zgarishlarga olib kelishi va issiqlik to'lqinlari va qurg'oqchilik tufayli qo'shimcha bosim o'tkazishi kutilmoqda. [14] [15]

Mahalliy navlari silliq, yog'li, tillarang,etdor. Turiga qarab, avakado yashil, jigarrang, binafsha yoki qora teriga ega va nok, tuxum shaklida yoki sharsimon bo'lishi mumkin. Mevalar pishmagan paytda teriladi va savdoga chiqquncha pishib yetiladi. Avakadoning yuqori ozuqaviy va yog'li tarkib tuzilishi turli xil taomlar, jumladan, salatlar va vegetarianlar uchun foydalidir. [16]

Persea americana - 20 metre (66 ft)gacha o'sadigan daraxt, navbatma-navbat joylashgan barglar12–25 centimetre (5–10 in) uzoqlikda joylashgan. Bargli novdalar bilan gullarning panikulalari yangi o'sishdan yoki barglarning qo'ltiqlaridan paydo bo'ladi. [17] Gullari ko'rinmas, yashil-sariq, 5–10 millimetre (0.20–0.39 in) kenglikda joylashgan.

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 Morton JF. Avocado; In: Fruits of Warm Climates. Center for New Crops and Plant Products, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 1987 — 91–102 bet. ISBN 978-0-9610184-1-2. 
  2. „What's in a name?“. University of California. Qaraldi: 27-mart 2016-yil.
  3. Chen, H; Morrell, PL; Ashworth, V; de la Cruz, M; Clegg, MT (2008). "Tracing the Geographic Origins of Major Avocado Cultivars". Journal of Heredity 100 (1): 56–65. doi:10.1093/jhered/esn068. PMID 18779226. 
  4. Storey, W. B. (1973). "What kind of fruit is the avocado?". California Avocado Society 1973–74 Yearbook 57: 70–71. http://ucavo.ucr.edu/General/FruitBerry.html. 
  5. „Growing avocados: flowering, pollination and fruit set“. Government of Western Australia: Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development.
  6. „Crops/World regions/Production quantity (pick lists) of avocados for 2020“. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistical Division (FAOSTAT) (2022). Qaraldi: 16-may 2022-yil.
  7. „How much water does it take to grow an avocado?“. Danwatch.dk (2019). 7-oktabr 2019-yilda asl nusxadan arxivlandi. Qaraldi: 7-oktabr 2019-yil.
  8. Powell. „Revealed: the enormous carbon footprint linked to eating avocado“ (en). Evening Standard (19-iyul 2017-yil). Qaraldi: 26-aprel 2022-yil.
  9. Sommaruga, Ruben; Eldridge, Honor May (2020-12-13). "Avocado production: Water footprint and socioeconomic implications". EuroChoices 20 (2): 48–53. doi:10.1111/1746-692x.12289. ISSN 1478-0917. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1746-692X.12289. 
  10. „The Shocking Environmental Effects of Avocado Farming“ (en-US). Vox Nature (17-may 2019-yil). Qaraldi: 26-aprel 2022-yil.
  11. „Avocado consumption: environmental and social considerations“ (en). MSU Extension. Qaraldi: 26-aprel 2022-yil.
  12. Khan, Nadeem; Kakabadse, Nada Korac-; Skouloudis, Antonis (2021-11-17). "Socio-ecological resilience and environmental sustainability: case of avocado from Mexico". International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 28 (8): 744–758. doi:10.1080/13504509.2021.1902419. ISSN 1350-4509. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2021.1902419. 
  13. Bravo-Espinosa, M., Mendoza, M.E., Carlo ́n Allende, T., Medina, L., S ́aenz-Reyes, J.T., Pa ́ez, R., 2014.
  14. „What climate change means for the future of coffee, cashews, and avocados“ (en). National Geographic Environment (26-yanvar 2022-yil). Qaraldi: 26-aprel 2022-yil.
  15. Grüter, Roman; Trachsel, Tim; Laube, Patrick; Jaisli, Isabel (2022-01-26). "Expected global suitability of coffee, cashew and avocado due to climate change" (en). PLOS ONE 17 (1): e0261976. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0261976. ISSN 1932-6203. PMID 35081123. PMC 8791496. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=8791496. 
  16. Dreher, Mark L.; Davenport, Adrienne J. (2013-01-01). "Hass Avocado Composition and Potential Health Effects". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 53 (7): 738–750. doi:10.1080/10408398.2011.556759. ISSN 1040-8398. PMID 23638933. PMC 3664913. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3664913. 
  17. Dilip Nandwani. Sustainable Horticultural Systems: Issues, Technology and Innovation. Springer, 2014 — 176– bet. ISBN 978-3-319-06904-3.